THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM By Charlotte Lambert, Kai Rizzuto, Claire Farges, Chaalam Wilson COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM KIDNEY Functions: - Liquid waste removed from the body - During circulation, blood passes through - Filters the blood

- White and red blood cells stay in the blood along with proteins - Most of the water that is removed during filtration returns to the blood - Controls amount of liquid NEPHRON Function: - Filtering structure in Kidneys - More than a million nephrons in a Kidney that help clean blood - Removes excess water, wastes and other substances

from blood - Brings back substances like sodium, potassium or phosphorus whenever they are running low in the body - Very bad to urinate glucose and proteins because they are helpful to your body - Composed of two main structures: glomerulus and renal tubule. 1. Glomerulus: small blood vessel where the actual filtering happens, helps normal proteins and cells stay in bloodstream and allows wastes to pass. 2. Renal Tubule: a tube where wastes from the glomerulus pass through. URETERS

Functions: -Move urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder - Urine flows down by a wave of contractions by the muscle layers of the urethral wall Structure: - Tubular organs about 1 - 12 inches long - Three layers within the ureter: 1. The inner layer (Mucous coat) continues from the linings of the urinary bladder 2. The middle layer (muscular coat) is made of smooth muscle fibers

3. The outer layer (fibrous coat) is made of tissue. URETHRA Structure: - Opening allowing urine to exit the urinary bladder - Connects the bladder to the genitals to allow urine to leave the body - Has muscles that allow urine to remain in the bladder Female Urethra: - 1.5 - 2 inches long - Curved forward - Made up of 3 layers: 1. Muscular layer is the continuation of the muscle layer of urinary bladder 2. Mucous Layer is also the continuation of the mucous layer of urinary bladder lined with

epithelium 3. Spongy erectile tissues layer is thin and made of spongy epithelial tissues - Simpler than the male urethra because it only carries urine Male Urethra: - 8 - 9 inches long - Arched in shape - Reproductive function along with excretion of urine - Made up of 3 parts: 1. Prostatic urethra: widest and most dilatable part. From the neck of bladder through the prostrate gland 2. Membranous urethra: shortest and most narrow part. Passes through area that controls BLADDER Functions:

- Muscular sac in the pelvis - Size and shape of a pear when empty - Connects to kidneys by the ureters - Stores urine which allows urination to be voluntary - Lined by layers of muscle tissue - Can store from 400 to 600 mL of urine - Collects urine that has been excreted by kidneys - Urine enters by the ureters and exits through the urethra

SKIN Functions: -Gives off perspiration and sweat of the body - Protects inner organs and tissues - Sensation - Insulation - Temperature regulation FUNCTIONS (OF SYSTEM)

Removes metabolic and liquid toxic wastes and excess water from an organism Leaves in the form of urine Also removes excess or unnecessary materials to help stabilize the organism The entire organism depends on the function of the excretory system The body produces wastes as it performs functions to stay alive. Reason For Importance The Excretory System is important because it removes

potentially deadly waste if it is allowed to pile up in your system. One product that your body helps you get rid of is a poison called urea It is a necessity to your body to get rid of waste, and without the Excretory System, the buildup of waste would be dangerous WHEN THINGS GO

WRONG... - If the urine backs up in the ureters or stays still, kidneys can develop infections. - Malfunctioning kidneys can cause filtration issues with the blood and can result in a dangerously high blood pressure You can still function with one diseased Kidney as long as the other is normal. - If urea builds up in your tissues, it begins to poison the cells - If there is any damage to the nephrons, it can cause kidney disease VIDEO CLIPS TO SHOW (choose 1 or 2)

Animation: kidney.swf Nephron bU THE END :) SOURCES ractsystem-ureter.html

omy-function-pain-and-pictures.html f-the-bladder

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