Thunderstorms and Tornadoes Chapter 11 - UMD

Thunderstorms and Tornadoes Chapter 11 - UMD

AOSC 200 Lesson 10 Visible image of super thunderstorm from GEO satellite

Fig. 11.2a IR image of the same super thunderstorm Fig. 11.2b

Fig. 11-1, p. 312 THUNDERSTORM IS A CLOUD OR CLUSTER OF CLOUDS THAT PRODUCES THUNDER, LIGHTNING, HEAVY RAIN, AND SOMETIMES HAIL AND TORNADOS

CAN DIVIDE THUNDERSTORMS INTO TWO MAIN TYPES ISOLATED THUNDERSTORMS PRODUCED WITHIN A WARM HUMID AIR MASS SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS PRODUCED BY FORCEFUL LIFTING

IN THE USA, AIRMASS THUNDERSTORMS GENERALLY OCCUR IN WARM MOIST AIR - mT LIFTING CAN BE BY FRONTS OR

OROGRAPHICALLY Lifted Index A parcel of air will not rise unless it is unstable. The lifted index follows a parcel of

air as it is lifted from the surface and cools at the dry adiabatic lapse rate until saturation occurs, and then cools at the wet adiabatic lapse rate. The lifted index is defined as:

The environmental temperature at 500 mb minus the temperature of the parcel of air when lifted to 500 mb If the lifted index is negative then the atmosphere is unstable. Severe thunderstorms require a

lifting index less than -3 Stepped Art Fig. 7-6, p. 175 Life cycle of an ordinary

thunderstorm cell Fig. 11.7 THUNDERSTORM CUMULUS STAGE

CUMULUS STAGE REQUIRES CONTINUOUS SOURCE OF WARM MOIST AIR EACH NEW SURGE OF WARM AIR RISES HIGHER THAN THE LAST STRONG UPDRAFTS

FALLING PRECIPITATION DRAGS AIR DOWN - DOWNDRAFT ENTRAINMENT THUNDERSTORM MATURE STAGE

SHARP COOL GUSTS AT SURFACE SIGNAL DOWNDRAFTS UPDRAFTS EXIST SIDE BY SIDE WITH DOWNDRAFTS IF CLOUD TOP REACHES TROPOPAUSE UPDRAFTS SPREAD LATERALLY - ANVIL

SHAPE TOP OF ICE LADEN CIRRUS CLOUDS GUSTY WINDS, LIGHTNING, HEAVY PRECIPITATION, HAIL THUNDERSTORM

DISSIPATING STAGE DOWNDRAFT AND ENTRAINMENT DOMINATE NO UPDRAFT THUNDERSTORM LOSES ENERGY SOURCE

An ordinary airmass thunderstorm Fig. 11.8 Table 11-1, p. 315

THUNDERSTORM GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT AIR NEEDS TO BE UNSTABLE DRYLINE - LINE BETWEEN cT AND mT

AIR MASSES-LEADS TO UNSTABLE AIR LIFTED INDEX IS NEGATIVE, AIR IS UNSTABLE VERTICAL WIND SHEAR CAN SPIN UP THUNDERSTORM SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS - mT MEETS

Cp. GREATEST CONTRAST - SPRING AND EARLY SUMMER A climatology of the average number of thunderstorm days in a year

Fig. 11-3, p. 314 Fig. 11-4, p. 315 Schematic of a multicell

thunderstorm. Red arrows represent the warm updraft, blue arrows the cool downdraft Fig. 11-10, p. 320

Squall Line Is a set of individual intense thunderstorm cells arranged in a line. They occur along a boundary of unstable air e.g. a cold front.

Strong environmental wind shear causes the updraft to be tilted and separated from the downdraft. The dense cold air of the downdraft forms a gust front.

Pre-frontal squall lines may form ahead of an advancing cold front as the air aloft forms waves downwind from the cold ll line associate with a cold front.

Fig. 11.10a Fig. 11.13 Mesoscale Convective

Complex A Mesoscale Convective Complex is composed of multiple single-cell storms in different stages of development. The individual thunderstorms must

support the formation of other convective cells In order to last a long time, a good supply of moisture is required at low levels in the atmosphere.

Infrared image of a mesoscale convective complex over Kansas, July 8 1997. Fig. 11-13, p. 322

SUPERCELL THUNDERSTORM SINGLE CELL THUNDERSTORM THAT PRODUCES DANGEROUS WEATHER REQUIRES A VERY UNSTABLE ATMOSPHERE AND STRONG VERTICAL WIND SHEAR - BOTH SPEED AND DIRECTION

UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE STRONG WIND SHEAR THE ENTIRE THUNDERSTORM ROTATES FAVORED REGION IS THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS IN THE SPRING TYPE OF THUNDERSTORM

SINGLE-CELL THUNDERSTORM MULTICELL THUNDERSTORM MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE C0MPLEX SUPERCELL THUNDERSTORM Tornado over College

Park, 10/23/01 Box 11-1, p. 329 http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=43VoMesUd2Q

http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=43VoMesUd2Q Geographic distribution of the month of maximum tornado threa.t

Fig. 11-30, p. 337 TORNADO DERIVED FROM SPANISH WORD TORNADA THUNDERSTORM TORNADOS ARISE FROM SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS

MOST TORNADOS IN CENTRAL US ON AVERAGE ABOUT 770 TORNADOS ARE REPORTED ANNUALLY OCCUR MAINLY FROM APRIL TO JUNE BUT ALL YEAR ROUND

Fig. 11.18 TORNADO LESS THAN 1.6 KM WIDE, AND SHORT LIVED NO ONE REALLY KNOWS HOW THEY ARE FORMED

MOST DROP DOWN FROM SUPERCELL THUNDERSTORMS - ROTATING HOWEVER THIS ROTATION CANNOT EXPLAIN THE FAST ROTATION OF A TORNADO THE HORIZONTAL ROTATION OF THE THUNDERSTORM IS CONVERTED INTO VERTICAL

ROTATION OF THE TORNADO TORNADO TRAVELS AT ABOUT 45 KM PER HOUR AND CUTS A PATH OF ABOUT 26 KM LONG BUT REALLY NO SUCH THING AS AN AVERAGE

TORNADO PRESSURE AT CENTER OF VORTEX AS MUCH AS 30% LOWER THAN SURROUNDINGS. AIR RUSHES IN FROM SURROUNDINGS AND IS SPIRALED UPWARD. CONSERVATIONOF ANGULAR MOMENTUM

BECAUSE OF TREMENDOUS PRESSURE GRADIENT WINDS CAN REACH 400 KM (250 MILES) PER HOUR. Fig. 11-23, p. 331

STAGES OF A TORNADO ORGANIZING STAGE - FUNNEL CLOUD DROPS DOWN TO THE SURFACE MATURE STAGE - TORNADO AT PEAK INTENSITY AND WIDTH

SHRINKING STAGE ROPE STAGE Table 11-3, p. 333 Fig. 11-25, p. 333

Fig. 11-33, p. 342 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToY11hHpA Jk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToY11hH

pAJk LIGHTNING .LARGE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE THAT RESULTS FROM RISING AND SINKING MOTIONS IN A THUNDERSTORM .SEQUENCE IS AS FOLLOWS;

. CHARGE SEPARATION - REALLY DO NOT UNDERSTAND WHY . GROUND BECOMES POSITIVELY CHARGED

. LIGHTNIING FORMATION BEGINS - LEADERS .

LIGHTNING FLASH OCCURS Lightning formation: Charge

separation. Fig. Fig. 11-37, p. 346

Life cycle and path of a hailstone in a supercell thunderstorm Fig. 11-38, p. 346

HAIL LARGE CLUMPS OR BALLS OF ICE START OF AS A SMALL ICE PARTICLE DUE TO UPDRAFT THE ICE PARTICLE DOES NOT FALL TO GROUND BUT IS RECYCLED INTO THE FREEZING PORTION OF THE

THUNDERSTORM, EACH TIME IT IS TAKEN UPWARD IT ACCUMULATES MORE ICE CAN END UP AS LARGE AS A GRAPEFRUIT mber of days per year with Hail > .75 inch

Fig.

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