Timber harvesting in the George Washington and Jefferson ...

Timber harvesting in the George Washington and Jefferson ...

Management Principals in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Ann Russell (Student ID 4371149) American Public University EVSP413 - Environmental and Ecosystems Management D002 Spring 14 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 The George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Figure 1

Figure 2 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 The George Washington and Jefferson National Forest The George Washington and Jefferson National Forest is owned and managed by the US Forest Service through the Department of Agriculture Figure 3 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14

Management Philosophy The George Washington and Jefferson National Forest is managed for multiple uses such as: Recreation Wildlife and habitat preservation Campgrounds over 1 million acres of remote forest Picnic areas 23 designated wilderness areas Boat launches where motorized vehicles are hiking trails prohibited As well as timber harvesting

Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Timber harvesting in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Timber harvesting is an important aspect of forest management. It allows for a healthy mixed age diverse ecosystem that can support a wide variety of plants and animals. The most common timber harvesting techniques in the George Washington National Forest are shelterwood harvesting and thinning(USDA Forest Services). Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Shelterwood harvesting in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest.

Shelterwood harvesting- 70% of the tree stand is removed in the initial harvest, a second cut which occurs between 3-15 years later removes the remaining mature trees (Woodland Stewardship). Figure 4 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Forest stand thinning in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest. Forest stand thinning- removal of competitive trees which allows more sunlight to penetrate the forest floor (Woodland Stewardship). Figure 5

Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Products of the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Nearly 700,000 acres are managed for the production of timber and wood products (USDA). Nearly 90,000 acres are designated wilderness areas with limited human activity (USDA). Figure 6 Figure 7 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14

Management issues in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Development Wildlife management Wind energy development Oil and gas leasing Timber harvesting Overall forest health Watershed soil Water quality Threatened and endangered

species Non-native species Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Wind Energy Development Click icon to add picture Forest Service and National Renewable Energy Laboratory identified nearly 36,000 acres within the forest for wind energy development. Pros: *Close urban proximity would benefit from a

green energy source Cons: *habitat fragmentation *effects on flying wildlife * aesthetics (USDA) Figure 8 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Oil and Gas Leasing There are many concerns regarding federal oils and gas land leasing in the George

Washington and Jefferson National Forest. Currently, approximately 12,000 acres are under lease for gas and oil development. The primary source of gas and oil in the area is hydrofracturing. (USDA) Figure 9 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Overall Forest Health The George Washington and Jefferson National Forest is an old growth forest with a high percentage of the forest community ranging in age from 80-110 years old (USDA). The age of the forest makes it more

vulnerable to native and non-native pests and diseases. Additionally, same age forests do not support the traditional biodiversity found in a mixed age forest. Forest managers have been working for decades to rejuvenate the area through tree harvesting and prescribed burning. Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Forest pests, diseases and invasive species in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Some of the most important factors for forest managers to keep in mind is the presence of pests, diseases and invasive species. Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14

Forest pests, diseases and invasive species in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Forest Pests- an insect that has a negative effect on the forest or ecosystem. Southern Pine Beetle- A native bark beetle that attacks the middle and upper part of pine trees. The beetle bores through the bark and cambium layer of the tree which makes the tree more susceptible to fungi infestation and tree mortality due to girdling (University of Florida). Southern Pine Beetle Figure 10 Damaged Bark from infestation Figure 11

Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Damaged wood from infestation Figure 12 Forest pests, diseases and invasive species in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Forest Diseases- disease which has a negative effect on the forest or ecosystem. American Chestnut Blight- Since introduction in the early 1900s, this disease has greatly affected the canopy layer of the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest. The blight is a fungus which is spread from tree to tree by wind, rain, insects and animals. The fungus enters through small cracks in the bark and multiplies

rapidly once the tree is invaded resulting in a rapid decline in the number of Chestnut trees that are capable of reaching maturity. (Virginia Tech.). Figure 13 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Forest pests, diseases and invasive species in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Invasive Species-a non-native organism or plant whose introduction poses a major threat to the ecosystem. Gypsy Moth- A moth originating from Europe and Asia which feeds on the foliage of hundreds of species of plant. Repeated annual feeding by Gypsy Moths on specific trees may result in tree mortality (US Forest Service).

Male and female Gypsy Moth Caterpillars feeding Figure 14 Figure 15 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Fire in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Fire can be both a friend and foe to forest managers. Prescribed burns are often recommended to promote the health of a forest and prevent

wildfires which can be difficult to contain. Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Fire in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest A controlled burn is the use of fire, by trained professionals under specific weather conditions, to stimulate new growth, maintain plants and animals who are dependent on young forests and reduces the risk of wildfires through forest floor fuel reduction. Note the fire road behind the technician and wind direction. Figure 17 Figure 16

Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Fire in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest Two years ago, approximately 6,000 acres were subject to prescribed burn in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest. Animals such as deer, bear, squirrels and rabbit benefit from the rejuvenation brought to the forest region after a fire. Trees such as oak and pine thrive in forested areas after fire and without fires; they would give way to more shade tolerant species such as maple (USDA). Figure 18 Figure 19

Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Figure 20 The George Washington and Jefferson National Forest as a mixed use facility The George Washington and Jefferson National Forest is a mixed use facility. The forests close proximity to urban areas such as Washington DC make the forest a recreational destination. Forest managers are responsible for creation a hospitable recreational destination as well as maintaining a functional and productive forest. VS Figure 22

Figure 21 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 The Future of the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest. Like many other forests in North America, forest managers are seeking to improve the quality of the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest through restoration projects. Forest restoration projects are vital to the survival of endangered species as well as overall forest and wetland quality (Randolph, 2004). Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14

Lower Cowpasture Restoration Project A current restoration project in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forest is the proposed Lower Cowpasture Restoration Project which Spans over 120,000 acres 10 year plan

Focus on aquatic passage Watershed improvement Wildlife habitat improvements

Non-invasive species management Timber management and transportation (Mountain Radio, 2013) Figure 23 Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Works Cited Mountain Radio. (2013, April 19). Allegheny Mountain Radio. Lower Cowpasture Restoration Project planning gets underway in Bath County. Retrieved July 21, 2014, from http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/wvmr/news.newsmain?action=article&ARTICLE_ID=1952 656.

Randolph, J. (2004). Stormwater Management and Watershed Restoration. Environmental land use planning and management (p.p. 282-289). Washington: Island Press. University of Florida. (n.d.) Featured Creatures. University of Florida Entomology and Nematology. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/. USDA Forest Services. (2013, April). Environmental Assessment Little Mountain/ Mad Anne Vegetation Management Project. Washington, DC. Government Printing Office. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from http://data.ecosystemmanagement.org/nepaweb/nepa_project_exp.php?project=39765&exp=detail Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 USDA Forest Services. (n.d). George Washington & Jefferson National Forests - Learning Center . US Forest Service - Caring for the land and serving people. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from http://www.fs.usda.gov/main/gwj/learning/history-culture. USDA Forest Services. (2011, April). George Washington & Jefferson National ForestsEnvironmental Impact Statement Summary. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5297828.pdf.

USDA Forest Services. (2013, August). Gypsy Moth in North America. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/morgantown/4557/gmoth/. Virginia Tech. (n.d.). Blight Fungus. American Chestnut Cooperators' Foundation. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from http://oak.ppws.vt.edu/~griffin/blight.html. Woodland Stewardship. (2011). Wildlife and Forest Management Online Content | Woodland Stewardship. Retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://woodlandstewardship.org/?page_id=1154. Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Figures Figure 1. USDA. George Washington and Jefferson National Forest, Mountain Biking. http://www.fs.usda.gov/activity/gwj/recreation/bicycling/?recid=73539&actid=24. Web. 18 July 2014. Figure 2. Recreation.gov. Destination National Capital Region/Chesapeake Bay. http://www.recreation.gov/marketing.do?goto=acm/Explore_Trip_Ideas/Destination_National_ Capital_Region_Chesapeake_Bay.htm. Web. 18 July 2014.

Figure 3. US Forest Service. http://www.fs.fed.us/. Web. 18 July 2014. Figure 4. Woodland Stewardship. Wildlife and Forest Management. http://woodlandstewardship.org. 2011. Web 18 July 2014. Figure 5. Woodland Stewardship. Wildlife and Forest Management. http://woodlandstewardship.org. 2011. Web 18 July 2014. Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Figure 6. Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Forest Industries. http://ohiodnr.com. n.d. Web. 18 July 2014. Figure 7. Wilderness.net. How Wilderness Becomes Wilderness. http://www.wilderness.net. n.d. Web. 18 July 2014. Figure 8. RenewableEnergyFocus.com. Simulating wind in forest environments. http://www.renewableenergyfocus.com/view/31443/simulating-wind-in-forest-environments/. Web. 25 March 2013. 19 July 2014. Figure 9. Spot.us. The future of hydrofacking in Virginia. http://www.spot.us/pitches/795-thefuture-of-hydrofracking-in-virginia. 2009. Web. 19 July 2014.

Figure 10. University of Florida. Featured Creatures. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu. n.d. Web. 20 July 2014. Figure 11. University of Florida. Featured Creatures. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu. n.d. Web. 20 July 2014. Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Figure 12. University of Florida. Featured Creatures. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu. n.d. Web. 20 July 2014. Figure 13. Columbia University. Chestnut Blight fungus. http://www.columbia.edu. 15 Mar 2002. Web. 20 July 2014. Figure 14. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Gypsy Moth. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us. 2013. Web. 20 July 2014. Figure 15. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Gypsy Moth. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us. 2013. Web. 20 July 2014.

Figure 16. National Park Services. Indiana Dunes. http://www.nps.gov. 6 Sept. 2013. Web. 20 July 2014. Figure 17. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. SCDNR News Release. http://www.dnr.sc.gov. n.d. Web. 20 July 2014. Figure 18. US Fish and Wildlife Services. Odocoileus virginianus. http://www.fs.fed.us. 2013. Web. 21 July 2014. Figure 19. Humane Society of the United States. What to do about wild rabbits. http://www.humanesociety.org. 2013. Web. 21 July 2014. Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14 Figure 20. Treeland Nursery. Lacey Oak Leaf. http://www.tree-land.com. 2012. Web. 21 July 2014. Figure 21. Steven F. Austin State University. Forest Recreation Management. http://forestry.sfasu.edu/forest-recreation-management.html. 2013. Web. 21 July 2014.

Figure 22. College of Tropical Agriculture. Current Forest Research Projects. http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/forestry/research/index.html. 2014. Web. 21 July 2014. Figure 23. Chesapeake Bay Program. Bay Blog; Forests. http://www.chesapeakebay.net/blog/keyword/forests. 2013. Web. 21 July 2014. Ann Russell EVSP 413, Spring 14

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