Tissues, Organs & Systems - RMC Science

Tissues, Organs & Systems - RMC Science

Eubacteria Section 2.1 Learning Goals We are exploring the characteristics of the kingdom Eubacteria. Eubacteria a.k.a.

bacteria most plentiful and common very small, single-cell prokaryotes Cell Characteristics they have some or all of the following features: cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes single, circular chromosome (floats freely in cytoplasm)

cell wall (contains peptidoglycan (NOT cellulose)) Cell Characteristics Contd pili (hair-like structures that help cell attach to surfaces) flagellum (long structure used for locomotion) capsule (sticky coat protects some bacteria from destruction) plasmid (a small loop of DNA that carries genes that give advantage to the cell such as antibiotic resistance)

Shape & Arrangement 3 common shapes are: 1. coccus (spherical) 2. bacillus (rod-shaped) 3. spirillum (helical, spiral) Shape & Arrangement Contd

the way bacteria cells are arranged is described using prefixes Diplo-: pairs of cells (coccus, bacillus) strepto -: chains (coccus, bacillus) Staphylo-: clumps (coccus only) ex. Streptococcus

pyogenes (strep throat) Obtaining Energy Bacteria are very diverse in the ways they get nutrients and energy from their surroundings Autotrophs:

make their own food photosynthetic contain chlorophyll e.g. Cyanobacteria (blue-green bacteria) Obtaining Energy Contd

Heterotrophs: need organic molecules as an

energy source found in other organisms some live as parasites others live as saprophytes (feed on dead organisms or organic wastes) e.g. E. coli Obtaining Energy Contd Chemotrophs:

obtain their energy from breakdown of inorganic substances such as hydrogen, sulfur, iron and nitrogen compounds e.g. nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Respiration obligate aerobes: need oxygen to produce energy obligate anaerobe: oxygen kills organisms

facultative anaerobes: can survive with or without oxygen Asexual Reproduction Binary

Fission: a parent cell divides producing two daughter cells that have an exact copy of the genetic material Sexual Reproduction conjugation:

two cells join by a pilus and one bacterial cell passes a copy of a plasmid to the other cell Endospore Formation

endospores: a highly resistant structure that forms around the chromosome when the cell is under stress Antibiotics View

on this! Learning Goals We are exploring the characteristics of the kingdom Eubacteria. Please Complete Make P53

brief Archaea notes from p51-52 #4, 8, 9, 14

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