Title Layout - George Mason University

Title Layout - George Mason University

LIBERTYS EXILES MAYA JASANOFF SCHEDULE BY WEEK October 19 The Englishness of the Colonists, and The First Test of Colonial Loyalty: The English Civil War October 26 1760-1776: Colonists in England and England in the Colonies. November 2 The Center Does Not Hold: Loyalists vs. Patriots November 9 The Caribbean: Nothing but England can we relish or fancy. TIMELINE COURSE WILL COVER

1607Founding of Jamestown 1642-51 English Civil War & the Colonies 1649England becomes a Commonwealth 1653-58 Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector 1660Restoration of the Monarchy

1660-1776 The Center Becomes Fragmented 1776-1814 Loyalism Becomes History WE WILL EXPLORE THE FOLLOWING: Did the distance between the Mother country and the colonies leave the American colonists impervious to political events in England? In terms of numbersexactly how many Loyalist colonists are we talking about, and how do we know the numbers? Exactly

who were the loyalists? Were they just white upper and middle-upper class colonists? What, specifically, were the ties that bound them to the British Empire? How were the Loyalists treated in the colonies? How did the Mother Country treat the Loyalists? ENGLISH COLONIZATION Was different from that of France, Portugal and Spain

SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES SPAIN: (Floridathe majority were Indian) A Catholic country sent conquistadores (conquerors) Mostly male and came for Gold, God, and Glory The Mestizos: people of Spanish and Indian mix who blended into society. FRANCE: (Louisiana and Canada) It too was a Catholic country, and settlers were mostly male traders who sought fur and fish.

The Metis: people of French and Indian mix who blended into society. ENGLISH: Initially men came but within a short time, families arrived. Theirs was a cult of commerce. There was a rigid racial classification system; intermarriage was not common or supported. 1606: JOINT STOCK COMPANIES WERE FORMED They

were established by royal charter by King James I on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. Given several names: Plymouth Company, Virginia Company of Plymouth, or Virginia Bay Company. Plymouth Company: establish a colony between Chesapeake Bay and the current US-Canada border. The London Company: establish a colony between Cape Fear and Long Island Sound.

The Massachusetts Bay Company was established in 1628. PLANTATION/COLONY Plantation=settlers were planted abroad in order to establish a permanent colonial base. Seventeenth-century English documents refer to the Atlantic Plantations, a term that took in land claimed by England from Newfoundland to Trinidad. SEAS ROLL AND MONTHS PASS BETWEEN THE ORDER AND THE EXECUTION EDMUND BURKE

SAILING TIMES FROM ENGLAND SAILING TIMES TO ENGLAND Boston: 5-7 weeks Boston: 4-5 weeks Chesapeake: 9 weeks

Chesapeake: 6 weeks Barbados: 9 weeks Barbados: 8 weeks Hudson Bay: 12 weeks Hudson Bay: 6 weeks NOR DID YOU START OUT AT ANY

TIME OF THE YEAR. One exception: ships going to West Indies could go at almost any time of the year. Because of prevailing winds and currents, the fastest sailing route passed around the north of Ireland. Ships traveling to the colonies from England sailed midsummer to late September. By the end of the 17th century the standard practice was to travel in convoys.

THIS HELD TRUE DURING THE TIME OF THE REVOLUTION. BRITISH COLONIES IN THE AMERICAS 1700 NORTH AMERICA Connecticut Delaware WEST INDIES Antigua

Tortola South Carolina Barbados Tobago Georgia Virginia Dominica

Maryland Pennsylvania Grenada Massachusetts Jamaica New Hampshire

Nevis New Jersey Montserrat New York St. Kitts

North Carolina St. Vincent Rhode Island BY 1776 THE FOLLOWING HAD BEEN ADDED: Canada Newfoundland

Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia The Bahamas Bermuda East and West Florida

THE COLONIES WERE LARGELY ETHNICALLY ENGLISH What did that mean? THE RULE OF LAW The people of the colonies are descendants of EnglishmenThey are therefore not only devoted to liberty, but to liberty according to English ideas and on English principles.Edmund Burke: Speech on Conciliation with the Colonies (22 March 1775)

English ideas? English principles? TWO BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION The Rule of Law Defined as: The rule of law is a legal maxim whereby governmental decisions be made by applying known legal principles. Rule of law implies that every citizen is subject to the law. It stands in contrast to the idea that the ruler is above the law. The Supremacy of Parliament Began in In 1215 when the tenants-in-chief secured the Magna Carta from King John. The Great Charter established the rule that the King could not levy or collect taxes without the consent of his royal counsel. 1376under King Edward III: no law could be made or any tax levied without the consent of both houses and the Sovereign. What became the House of Commons had been established in 1272.

ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS 1689 FORMALIZES RULE BY LAW Royal interference with the law is prohibited. The monarch cannot unilaterally establish new courts or act as a judge. The monarch cannot impose taxes without the consent of Parliament. The monarch cannot interfere in the election of members of Parliament. Freedom of speech and debates is guaranteed.

No excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishments may be imposed. DEFINITIONS LOYALIST: ONE WHO ADHERES TO HIS SOVEREIGN OR CONSTITUTED AUTHORITY ESP. IN TIMES OF REVOLT. PATRIOT: APPLIED TO A PERSON WHO SUPPORTED THE RIGHTS OF A COUNTRY AGAINST KING AND COURT. THERE WERE 2 KINDS OF LOYALISM: BEFORE AND AFTER 1776 Beginning in 1607: A long-held form of allegiance to the empire shared by the North American colonists. The form which emerged in 1774:

That emerged during the traumatic moments before and during the military years when colonists felt compelled to make political choices. 1642: THE FIRST TEST OF COLONIAL LOYALTY: THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR AND THE EFFECT ON THE AMERICAN COLONIES WHAT WAS THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR? The English Civil War, fought from 1642 to 1651, consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political maneuverings between the Royalists lead by King Charles I, and Parliamentarians. The fighting took place in England, Scotland, and Ireland. The War led to : the

trial and execution of King Charles I; the exile of his son, Charles II; The replacement of the English monarchy with FIRST, the Commonwealth of England and THEN with a Protectorate under Oliver Cromwells personal rule. THE SIDES: ROUNDHEADS AND CAVALIERS

(PARLIAMENTARIANS AND ROYALISTS) MAJOR PLAYERS KING CHARLES I (1600-1649) OLIVER CROMWELL (1599-1658) AND THE PARLIAMENT OF ENGLAND UNICAMERAL 1215-1341 BICAMERAL : House of Lords and House of Commons 1341-1649 Unicameral

1649-1657 (Cromwell abolished the House of Lords) BICAMERAL 1657-1707 (Restoration of the Monarchy restored the House of Lords) WITH RESPECT TO THE CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR No man understands the true grounds of our unnatural wars. Sir John Oglander HOWEVER: ALL DISCUSSION OF CAUSES LEADS TO TWO: Religion Parliament THE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS INVOLVED IN THE

ISSUES Roman Catholics Church of EnglandAnglican. Reform groups: Puritans wanted to maintain the Established Church but to purge it of the remnants of popery. Separatists split off from the Puritans and advocated separation from all other Christians. Church of ScotlandPresbyterian Traces its roots to John Calvin, French Catholic who converted to the Reformation Movement. His follower in Scotland was John Knox, who led the Reformation in Scotland against the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots. OF PARTICULAR SIGNIFICANCE The Puritan Movement The cry for more reform in the 1560s was the basis of the Puritan Movement with the works of John Calvin being the most widely disseminated publications in England.

KING CHARLES I PRECIPITATES MILITARY ACTION IN TWO WAYS: FIRST: While the monarch and parliament had become separate institutions, and no law could be made or any tax levied without the consent of Parliament, monarchs could call Parliament and dismiss it at will. For eleven years (1629-1640) the King did not call Parliament. When he did, in 1640, Parliament passed the Militia Ordinance denying the King control of any military force that could be used against it. SECOND:

THE RELIGION FACTOR The King planned to replace the Scottish Presbyterian system of church government with the High Anglican system in order to harmonize the churches of England and Scotland. Opponents of reforms united around the Scottish National Covenant of February 1638; the Covenanters became the leading political and religious force in Scotland. When the King decided to impose his will by force and moved to invade Scotland, the Scots invaded England. REGICIDE

Nov. 1647: King Charles escapes and flees to the Isle of Wight; December 1748: recaptured and sent to Windsor Castle; January 1749: Tried for treason;

January 1749: Executed outside Whitehall Palace. ENGLAND BECOMES A COMMONWEALTH THE INTERREGNUM In May 1649 Parliament passed An Act Declaring England to be a Commonwealth. It was created for the People of England and all of the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging. Commonwealth defined: an association of self-governing autonomous states more or less loosely associated in a common allegiance It was governed by a Council of State. The Council's duties were to

act as the executive of the country's government in place of the King and the Privy Council. It was to direct domestic and foreign policy and to ensure the security of the Commonwealth. The Council was dominated by the Army, with Cromwell in the Chair at its first meeting. JANUARY 1655 After a hundred procedural delays and prevarications Cromwell dismisses Parliament and rules alone for a year. During that time:

Severe crackdown on public debate; Strict control over the press; Sanctioned unofficial return of Jewish people to England; Charged appointees with enforcing the ideals and standards of Puritanism and to eliminate drinking and dressing immodestly.

EFFECT ON THE AMERICAN COLONIES The worst and most dangerous tymes. George Fenwick of New England to Phillip Bell, Governor of Barbados. 1643 OLIVER CROMWELL BECOMES OLIVER P. THE PROTECTORATE 1653-58 Cromwells Western Design Objective: to ouster Spain from the Western Hemisphere by military conquest. The colonies were involved in two specific ways:

1. Enlist colonists to settle in the islands, particularly Jamaica; 2. Recruit colonists to fight. Both objectives failed. Distance and logistical problems caused by it enabled the colonies to stay at arms length from the project. CROMWELL FOCUSES ON THE AMERICAN COLONIES WITH THIS RESULT: 1. The Commonwealth Parliament felt

it had to put down opposition in Britain, Ireland, and its plantations. 2. The Council of State announced its authority to cancel all existing colonial charters and replace them with new foundations for government. 3. It instituted a more systemized form of colonial oversight; thereby implementing an imperial approach to the Atlantic plantations. COMMONWEALTH COAT OF ARMS: 1649-1660

THE COLONIES HAD TO DECIDE KING CHARLES EXECUTION CHANGED THAT AT FIRST NEUTRALITY Prevented the colonists from acting on outdated information They feared full-scale assault by either Royalist or Parliamentarians if they chose sides.

Colonial traders culd not afford to turn away trading ships from the other side of the conflict. They feared Indian attacks if they realized the colonies could not expect aid from the Mother Country. Six colonies declared open allegiance to the dead monarchs son, Charles II. A sixth of the male colonists from New England returned to England to fight for Parliament.

There was fighting in Maryland instigated by Parliamentary privateers. It was called The Plundering Time. THE CURIOUS HISTORY OF KENT ISLAND THE PLUNDERING TIME 1638: Maryland governor, the Catholic Leonard Calvert, sized a trading post on Kent island. 1644: Kent Island retaken by Protestants. When they also seized St. Mary City, Catholic Governor Calvert escaped to the Virginia colony.

Protestants begin plundering the property of anyone who did not swear allegiance to the English Parliament. 1654: Puritans in Maryland disenfranchise Catholics and high-church Anglicans. 1655: Maryland Puritans defeat Anglican-Catholic forces at the Battle of the Severn, but a settlement is reached 2 years later. 1660: Restoration brings back the Calverts in Maryland, but the New England Puritans retain their charters.

VIRGINIA FIGHTS THE WAR UNDER GOVERNOR WILLIAM BERKELEY 1643: Virginias General Assembly legislates: all nonconformists . . . Shall be compelled to depart the collony with all conveniencie. 1646: Informs Parliament that its location in America necessitates neutrality in relation to the upheaval in England. 1649:. Governor Berkeley proclaims Charles II king. 1649: House of Burgesses enacts legislation to punish those who publicly support the regicide or refuse to acknowledge Charles II as king. Royalist exiles fled to Virginia: the only city of refuge left in his Majestys dominions. THE COMMONWEALTH PARLIAMENT

FIGHTS BACK 1650: embargo against colonies who assert support for Charles IIBarbados, Bermuda, and Virginia. 1651: Navigation Act: all goods shipped to and from American colonies must travel in English ships; Virginias best trading partners, the Dutch, are excluded from colonial ports. (This figured predominately into the American Revolution) 1652: Bermuda surrenders to the Commonwealth government after a two-month blockade of its ports.

Virginia stands alone. THE JAMESTOWN SETTLEMENT On March 12, 1652, in order to avoid bloodshed, Virginia governor Berkeley and his council agreed to a negotiated settlement to the forces sent out by the Commonwealth. By the settlement, Virginia relinquished its status as a Royal colony and its formal support of King Charles II. Berkeley was forced to step down as governor. Meanwhile

Back in England SEQUENCE OF EVENTS THE ROYAL MIRACLE As Parliamentarians gained ground, and King Charles I faced the possibility of capture, he became more and more insistent that his son leave the country. He wrote to Prince Charles: charging him never to yield to any conditions that are dishonourable, unsafe for your person, or derogatory to regal authority, upon any considerations whatsoever, though it were for the saving of my life. In March 1646 Charles sailed to the Isles of Sicily, and in April to Jersey. In late June, however, as the king surrendered to the Scots, Prince Charles agreed to go to France. He was reunited with his mother at St Germain, near Paris, where he settled at the expense

of the French court. THE BIGGEST DIFFICULTY IN ESCAPING: CHARLES COULD NOT HIDE IN A CROWD Complexion: he was dark and swarthy, the only one of the royal children who favored his Italian Grandmother, Marie deMedici . Charles was also 6 3 tall in an age where the average height of a man was a little over

5. CROMWELL ISSUES A WANTED PROCLAMATION The poster calls upon all Officers, as well Civil as Military, and all other good people of this nation to make a diligent search for the king. It warns if anyone knowingly Conceal the lad Charls Stuart they will be held as "partakers and Abbettors of their Trayterous and wicked practices.

A 1,000 reward is offered for the Kings capture. ON THE RUN FROM SEPTEMBER 3 TO OCTOBER 15A 600 MILE JOURNEY Charles was aided and sheltered by dozens of people, from the Earl of Derby to a country woman by the name of Jane Lane. People who helped him could have earned the 1,000 reward for his capture, but they also risked their lives for aiding the escape of one who had been

proclaimed a traitor. At one point he cut his hair, and at Boscobel a Catholic family hid him underground where they had hidden priests. FROM ALL CONTEMPORARY REPORTS: The combination of resource, intelligence and sheer courage which he showed fully justifies the verdict of John Oldmixon in his early eighteenthcentury history of the Stuarts: King Charles the Second in the Oak

near Boscobel, makes as Heroical Figure as in any Part of his Reign. Antonia Fraser, Royal Charles RESTORATION OF THE MONARCHY BRINGING BACK THE MONARCHY CONVENTION PARLIAMENT A parliament which, owing to the abeyance of the Crown, assembled without formal summons by the Sovereign. Assembled for the first time

on 25 April 1660 it was predominantly Royalist in its membership. DECLARATION OF BREDA 4 April 1660: Charles II issued a proclamation which promised the following: 8 May 1660: Proclaims that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the death of Charles I in January

1649. A general pardon for crimes committed during the War and Interregnum for those who recognized him as the lawful king. Retention by current owners of property purchased during the same period; Religious toleration; Payment of monies owed to members of the army; Stipulates that the army would be recommissioned into service under the crown. WHY RESTORE THE MONARCHY?

The restoration was an internal process; it was not brought about by war. Stability and order were needed and desired. The character of the King was significant: He made strenuous efforts to retain his protestant reputation; Even at his lowest moments, he would not make sacrifices, such as a change of religion, to get the support of France, Spain, or the Dutch. He was known as a decent, serious manat lest as much so as any monarch.

Once Upon a Time There was a colony of New Haven But then it gave refuge to three men who signed the death warrant of King Charles IIs father. And that is why the colony of New Haven lost its charter and was absorbed into the royal colony of Connecticut. THUS ENDS THE STORY Of how Governor Berkeley once again became his Majesties Governor And How King Charles II gave Virginia the title of Old Dominion and restored its status as a crown colony.

KING CHARLIES SPANIEL: THE BREED WAS BROUGHT TO ENGLAND BY CHARLES II But it seems as though people were stealing the Kings dogs, and he advertised for their return.

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