/ ; 2011 Smart Compressors The Intelligent Solution BITZER Khlmaschinenbau GmbH / ; 2011 Agenda / / History - / Current Status - / Case Study / Summary
BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 2 History History - / Simple open type compressors with separate electrical motor / Designed in 1940 / Simple open type compressor combined with mechanical valves & controls in condensing units BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 4 History / Introduction of semi hermetic compressors (BITZER: BHS series)
/ Paralleling of compressor to centralize and improve system efficiency BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 5 History - / Introduction of semi hermetic compressors with capacity regulation L N BITZERs efficient blocked suction concept / Together with paralleling of compressors a nearly step less control With modern systems and lowest possible head pressures maybe not sufficient in winter times DL
SL BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 6 History - / Introduction of compressors with external inverter; operating with nominal or reduced frequency / Issues: Correct selection of inverter and motor size Programming and service of inverter Full cost increase no increase in cooling capacity due to no super synchronous operation BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 7 Current Status
/ Background - Selection of compressors & refrigeration systems Driving forces in the past Mainly initial investment costs Reliability Driving forces at the present time Efficiency improvements driven by Rising energy costs Reduced carbon footprint Green image Competitive advantages Live cycle costs Reliability BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 9 / Background - Selection of compressors & refrigeration systems Most refrigeration systems are predominantly working at part load
conditions however: Cooling capacity must be calculated for max. load under extreme operating conditions Huge over capacity at part load or low condensing temps. Therefore, capacity modulation is essential in many applications Match of capacity with cooling demands Improvement of energy efficiency through Improved dynamic system behaviour Smaller average temperature difference in heat exchangers Reduction of operating/ starting cycles BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 10 / Background - Selection of compressors & refrigeration systems Particularly MT systems in supermarkets feature strong fluctuations in cooling load
Seasonal temperature profile strong capacity changes over SDT Strongly varying loads: day, night, weekend, shopping frequency, possible heat reclaim systems, etc Present systems are mainly designed with multiple compressors and ON / OFF capacity control Dependent on boundary conditions & control regimes strong variations of suction and discharge pressures are apparent Conclusive Requirements Intelligent system control in combination with intelligent compressor capacity modulation in particular important with Low load conditions and/ or low ambient temperatures BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 11
Big potential for condensing temperatures 20C or below! BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 12 / Inverter operation? On/off operation of 4 compressors in a conventional supermarket system without an inverter BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 13 Current Status Requirements on compressor design for high COP and SEER / BITZER developed short stroke OCTAGON piston compressors which are best suited for over synchronous speed Reduced piston velocity Better discharging process
Less throttling losses Higher frequencies possible Improved running smoothness Long stroke design Short stroke design Same displacement Same compressor speed BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 14 Current Status / Octagon piston compressors with integrated inverter Higher specific cooling capacity due to 87 Hz operation Motor and inverter ideally matched Highest motor / inverter efficiency Wide application range Fully EMC qualified (industrial application)
Suction gas cooled inverter Preprogrammed Maintenance free BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 15 Smart Compressors The Intelligent Solution Frequency Inverter-Winding Layout 230V-3-50Hz (BITZER VARISPEED) [%] 180 X 160 140 120
Required at 25 87 Hz 50 60 Motor voltage: 400 115 V 230 276 Motor current: 15.1 A Motor power: 2.9 kW 5.2 6.3 9.4 Motor torque : 34.1 34.0 Nm 34.3 35.4
X Torque required M 100 80 qu e r rX e w o P 60 40 d
ire 4EC-4.2Y (R404A; to=-10C; tc=45C) Power network: 400V-3-50Hz Max motor current: 18.5A X P Available Motor power: Motor torque : 2.9 kW 9.4 5.2 6.3
Compressor Frequency [Hz] Compressor Voltage [V] Case Study / Example payback period / Assumptions Constant cooling load: 47 kW Condensing temperature range: tc= 25C 45C
Condenser selection: t= 10K Installation location: Moscow, Russia BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 18 / Assumptions Max./ min. capacities at to=-8C; toh=10K, toh useful=10K, tCu=10K, w/o subcooling using R404A 4CC-9.F3Y at 87Hz Rack models
Compressors Capacity Control method 4CC standard 3x 4CC-9.2Y max.47,4 kW min. 15,8 kW stepped 33 66 100% VSD
1x 4TCS-12.2Y 1x 4CC-9.F3Y max.47,0 kW min. 7,4 kW infinite 15,8 100% BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 19 / Results Compressor COP can only be reached if compressor capacity equals the system capacity BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 20
/ Payback Type 4CC standard VSD Qo [kWh] 411 720 411 720 P in [kWh] 129 472 109 500 Annual COP Rbl / kWh 3,18 2,50 3,76 2,50
Rbl 323680 273750 Cost savings of Rbl 49930 or Euro 1248 COP improvement: 18% Amortization period: less than 1 year! Additionally has to be taken in consideration: - Comparison based on constant load - Winter operation leads to an additional COP reduction (standard rack) due to relatively bigger steps and the smaller regulation range BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 21 / Case study
ECOSTAR Smart air- cooled condensing unit with frequency inverter and intelligent control BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 22 Case study: Conventional scroll unit vs. ECOSTAR unit with VSD: 3 x L2500 show cases Operating conditions: R404a, SST=-4C, 6-8C show case temperature BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 23
/ Case study - existing running store in Bangkok/ Thailand Installation 1: conventional scroll unit Installation 2: recip unit with VSD (ECOSTAR) as parallel system Each system operated for 6 days Monitoring of the power consumption by digital power meter Comparison on medium temperature application BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 24 / Case study test result BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 25 / Case study test result Day 1
(kWh) Day 2 (kWh) Day 3 (kWh) Day 4 (kWh) Day 5 (kWh) Day 6 (kWh) Total (kWh)
Average (kWh) Scroll on/off unit Power consumption 93.2 82.2 93.2 94.9 96.8 96.0
556.3 92.7 Ecostar unit Power consumption 60.1 69.0 71.5 76.2 70.6 68.4
415.7 69.3 ECOSTAR unit = 25.2% less energy BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 26 Case study - Life Cycle Cost Savings: In 7 years ~ U$ 11,500.00 / Assumptions: 7 years life cycle of standard CDU No energy cost increase in 7 years
Energy cost based on lowest rate of U$ 0.1 /kWh (High energy cost areas will have more savings) Based on to = -4 C, low temperatures leads to more savings Testing in tropical country, no full advantage on fan speed controller (Under low ambient conditions - more savings) BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 27 Summary
/ Main drivers for capacity modulation Energy savings and emission reductions (incl. legislations) Quality of chilled products and/ or cooling process Improved components reliability / Resulting priorities in compressor and system developments Capacity adaption to real demand, intelligent control regimes Efficiency optimization related to load profile Operation at lowest possible condensing temperatures Reduced power of auxiliary drives in part load Energy efficiency at full and part load is major target & requirement BITZER // Shokin-Pfeil-Smart-Compressors-2011-03-02// Page 29 Help Safe the World >> Reduce Energy BITZER believes in Inverter technology ! !
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