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Using a proven broiler model to differentiate mineral bioavailability of GemStone OTM from inorganic sources GemStone Organic Trace Mineral (OTM) Vs. Inorganic Standard Minerals GS050115 1 Outline Introduction Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Results Experiment 3 Objective & Procedures Results Experiment 1b Objective & Procedures Results Relative Biological Value Objective & Procedures Results Summary GS050115 2 Introduction Young broiler chicks are typically used to determine trace mineral availability and requirements Tests to determine the relative bioavailability of trace minerals must be conducted at low (< 30 ppm) trace mineral basal levels that result in a significant response of the test materials relative to the basal diet great sensitivity of young, rapidly-growing animals Relative Biological Value (RBV) - relative to trace mineral sulfate

standard. Prophylactic trace mineral levels, above normal premix and dietary levels, are typically fed to commercial birds test model of 49 day-old market age broilers essential to determine therapeutic value of zinc and manganese levels GS050115 3 Experiment 1 Objectives Determine zinc availability of GemStone OTM compared to zinc oxide and zinc sulfate in broiler chickens Procedures Ross 708 male broiler chicks reared in battery brooders, with raised wire floors. Supplemental Zn provided at 10, 20, 30, & 40 ppm above basal Zn (23.3 ppm) 8 birds/cage; 10 cages/treatment Broilers fed a semi-purified, low-Zn ration from 0 7 days of age (Zn depletion) Birds fed test diets from 8 21 days of age Live performance measured Tissue zinc determined (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 4 Treatments Zn Oxide (Negative Control) Zn Sulfate GemStone OTM Using Zn from each Zn source, added Zn replaced cornstarch and was adjusted to contain either 10, 20 or 30 added Zn levels. Zinc Sulfate served as both standard and Positive Control and was added at the rate of 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm Zn. 3 Negative Control (no ppm Zn added) served as Negative Control. 4 Basal ration (without added Zn levels) contained 23.3 ppm Zn. 1 2 (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 5 Body Weight (g) GemStone Zn 260 significantly improved body weight of growing chickens (0-21 days of age)1 711.0 710.0

a 700.0 690.0 680.0 674.7 670.0 668.2 b c 660.0 Zn Oxide Zn Sulfate GemStone Zn 260 Values are the average of all Zn levels from each source. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1 Does NOT include zero (0) added Zn level (i.e., control group). (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 6 GemStone Zn 260 significantly improved feed intake of young growing chickens (0-21 days of age)1 1,015.0 1011.7 a Feed Intake (g/bird) 1,005.0 995.0 985.0 975.0 965.0 955.0 959 959.2 b b Zn Oxide Zn Sulfate 945.0 GemStone Zn 260 Values are the average of all Zn levels from each source. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1 Does NOT include zero (0) added Zn level (i.e., control group). (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115

7 GemStone Zn 260 feed:gain of young growing chickens (0-21 days of age) 1 1.500 1.44 1.42 1.42 Zn Sulfate GemStone Zn 260 Feed: Gain (g/g) 1.400 1.300 1.200 1.100 1.000 Zn Oxide 1 Values are the average of all Zn levels from each source. Does NOT include zero (0) added Zn level (i.e., control group). (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 8 GemStone Zn 260 significantly improved bone ash % for young growing chickens (0-21 days of age) Bone Ash (%) 1 42.16 42.05 a 41.75 41.45 41.15 40.85 40.55 40.25 40.77 b 40.45 b Zn Oxide Zn Sulfate GemStone Zn 260 Values are the average of all Zn levels from each source.

Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1 Does NOT include zero (0) added Zn level (i.e., control group). (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 9 Liver Zinc (ug/g DM) GemStone Zn 260 significantly improved liver zinc for young growing chickens (0-21 days of age) 1 190.0 a 189.0 187.0 185.0 183.0 182.2 b 181.0 179.0 178.2 c 177.0 175.0 Zn Oxide Zn Sulfate GemStone Zn 260 Values are the average of all Zn levels from each source. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1 Does NOT include zero (0) added Zn level (i.e., control group). (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 10 GemStone Zn 260 significantly improved pancreas zinc for young growing chickens (0-21 days of age) 191.0 1 190.5 a 189.0 Pancreas Zinc (ug/g DM) 187.0 185.0 183.0 182.5

b 181.0 179.0 177.0 e 177.9 c 175.0 Zn Oxide Zn Sulfate GemStone Zn 260 Values are the average of all Zn levels from each source. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1 Does NOT include zero (0) added Zn level (i.e., control group). (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 11 GemStone Zn 260 significantly improved bone zinc for young growing chickens (0-21 days of age) 1 218.7 Bone Zinc (ug/g DM) 218.0 a 215.0 213.7 212.0 b 209.0 206.0 203.0 199.6 200.0 c 197.0 194.0 Zn Oxide Zn Sulfate GemStone Zn 260 Values are the average of all Zn levels from each source. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1 Does NOT include zero (0) added Zn level (i.e., control group).

(AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 12 Body Weight (g) Slope-Ratio Used to Determine Relative Biological Value (RBV) 800 Slope = 3.48 750 Slope = 2.74 Slope = 1.92 700 650 GemStone Zn 260 ZnSO4 ZnO 600 0 10 20 30 40 Added Zn, ppm RBV of GemStone OTM: 3.48 2.74 = 127% (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 13 Relative Biological Value of Zinc From GemStone Zn 260 vs. Zinc Sulfate Item Body Weight Bone Ash Liver Zinc Pancreas Zinc Bone Zinc Relative Biological Value, % 127.07 129.20 126.12 124.26 130.12 Assumes 100% availability from zinc sulfate standard (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 14 Experiment 2 Objectives Determine effects of prophylactic zinc and manganese from GemStone OTM compared to oxides and sulfates on live

performance, bone ash, and coccidial lesion score of broilers reared from 0 to 49 days of age in floor pens. Procedures Ross 708, mixed-sex broiler chicks Fed commercial-type mash feed 50 birds/pen; 12 pens per treatment Starter: days 0 to 21 Grower: days 22 to 42 Finisher: days 43 to 49 Body weight and feed consumption measured days 21, 42 & 49 Bone ash and coccidial lesion scores determined days 21 & 49 (AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 15 Coccidial Lesion Scoring Johnson and Reid, 1970. GS050115 16 Treatments Ration Number TEST MATERIAL (additives)1,2,3 Negative Control 100 ppm added Zn and 100 ppm added Mn from sulfate sources. Positive Control Negative Control + 40 ppm added Zn and added Mn @ total 140 ppm Zn and 140 ppm Mn from sulfate level. Neg Control Negative Control + 20 ppm added Zn and 20 ppm Mn from + 20 ppm OTM GemStone Zn 260 and GemStone Mn 220. Neg Control Negative Control + 30 ppm added Zn and 30 ppm added Mn from + 30 ppm OTM GemStone Zn 260 and GemStone Mn 220. Neg Control Negative Control + 40 ppm added Zn and 40 ppm added Mn from + 40 ppm OTM GemStone Zn 260 and GemStone Mn 220. Each treatment was fed to 12 replicates of 50 mixed-sex broilers. Copper sources were furnished by Phibro Animal Health Corporation. 3 A basal (with enough feed for the entire treatment) was mixed first and then each zinc/manganese premix mixture was added and remixed. 1 2 (AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 17

(AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 18 Average Body Wt. Gain (g) Day 0-21 Average Body Weight Gain (g) 690 a 680 678.93 ab671.10 670 664.09 b 663.74 b 660 648.09 650 c 640 630 NC (100 ppm ZnSO 4 + 100 ppm MnSO 4 ) Positive Control (40 ppm ZnSO 4 + 40 ppm MnSO 4) NC + 20 ppm GemStone Zn + 20 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 30 ppm GemStone Zn + 30 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 40 ppm GemStone Zn + 40 ppm GemStone Mn Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 19 Day 0-49 Average Body Weight Gain (g) 2,720 2,700 Average Body Wt. Gain (g) 2,700 2,690 a 2,680

ab 2,657 2,660 2,647 bcd 2,640 cd 2,620 2,620 2,600 d 2,580 2,560 NC (100 ppm ZnSO4 + 100 ppm MnSO4 ) Positive Control (40 ppm ZnSO4 + 40 ppm MnSO4) NC + 20 ppm GemStone Zn + 20 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 30 ppm GemStone Zn + 30 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 40 ppm GemStone Zn + 40 ppm GemStone Mn Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 20 Day 0-21 Feed Conversion 1.44 1.427 1.42 d 1.399 Feed Conversion 1.40 1.397 cd bcd 1.38 1.383 ab 1.367 a 1.36

1.34 1.32 NC (100 ppm ZnSO4 + 100 ppm MnSO4 ) Positive Control (40 ppm ZnSO4 + 40 ppm MnSO4) NC + 20 ppm GemStone Zn + 20 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 30 ppm GemStone Zn + 30 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 40 ppm GemStone Zn + 40 ppm GemStone Mn Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 21 Day 0-49 Feed Conversion Corrected 1.98 1.958 1.96 b Feed Conversion 1.94 1.921 1.919 1.92 ab ab 1.899 1.90 1.892 a a 1.88 1.86 1.84 NC (100 ppm ZnSO4 + 100 ppm MnSO4 ) Positive Control (40 ppm ZnSO4 + 40 ppm MnSO4) NC + 20 ppm GemStone Zn +

20 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 30 ppm GemStone Zn + 30 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 40 ppm GemStone Zn + 40 ppm GemStone Mn Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 22 Lesion Scores Day 21 0.9 0.81 0.8 d 0.7 Lesion Scores 0.6 0.58 0.6 bc 0.5 cd 0.38 0.4 b 0.3 0.2 0.13 0.1 a 0 NC (100 ppm ZnSO4 + 100 ppm MnSO4 ) Positive Control (40 ppm ZnSO4 + 40 ppm MnSO4) NC + 20 ppm GemStone Zn + 20 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 30 ppm GemStone Zn + 30 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 40 ppm GemStone Zn + 40 ppm GemStone Mn Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). Negative Control = NC

(AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 23 Lesion Scores Day 49 0.450.42 0.4 0.40 0.38 c Lesion Scores 0.35 c c 0.30 bc 0.27 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.08 a 0.05 0.00 NC (100 ppm ZnSO4 + 100 ppm MnSO4 ) Positive Control (40 ppm ZnSO4 + 40 ppm MnSO4) NC + 20 ppm GemStone Zn + 20 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 30 ppm GemStone Zn + 30 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 40 ppm GemStone Zn + 40 ppm GemStone Mn Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 24 Bone Ash (%) Day 21 42.5 42.31 41.97 Bone Ash (%) 42.0 41.81 a

ab bcd 41.5 41.2 41.04 41.0 de e 40.5 40.0 NC (100 ppm ZnSO4 + 100 ppm MnSO4 ) Positive Control (40 ppm ZnSO4 + 40 ppm MnSO4) NC + 20 ppm GemStone Zn + 20 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 30 ppm GemStone Zn + 30 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 40 ppm GemStone Zn + 40 ppm GemStone Mn Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 25 Bone Ash (%) Day 49 42.2 41.94 42.0 41.92 a a 41.8 Bone Ash (%) 41.6 41.4 41.2 41.07 41.01 41.0 bc bc 41.07 bc 40.8

40.6 40.4 NC (100 ppm ZnSO4 + 100 ppm MnSO4 ) Positive Control (40 ppm ZnSO4 + 40 ppm MnSO4) NC + 20 ppm GemStone Zn + 20 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 30 ppm GemStone Zn + 30 ppm GemStone Mn NC + 40 ppm GemStone Zn + 40 ppm GemStone Mn Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-2) GS050115 26 Effect of Various Zinc Mineral Sources on Nutritional Bioavailability and Broiler Performance Experiment 1b GemStone vs Competitors (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 27 Trial Design Treatment Description LR130123-02 Zn Oxide* (Negative Control) LR130123-03 OTM Competitor A LR130123-04 OTM Competitor B LR130123-05 GemStone OTM LR130123-07 OTM Competitor C LR130123-01 Zn Sulfate* (Positive Control) * Inorganic Trace Minerals (ITM) (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 28

Effect of Zn source on biological data for young growing chickens (0-21 days of age) 1 Body Weight 710.0 Weight (g) a 699.2 700.0 b 690.0 686.7 682.8 c 680.0 c 674.7 670.0 d 668.2 e 660.0 Zn Oxide Competitor A Competitor B GemStone Zn 260 Competitor C Zn Sulfate Values are the average of all Zn levels from each source. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1 Does NOT include zero (0) added Zn level (i.e., CONTROL group). (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 29 Pancreas Zn (ug/g DM) Effect of Zn source on biological data for 1 young growing chickens (0-21 days of age) Pancreas Zinc (ug/g DM) a 190.5 190 a 188.2 187 185.4 bc 183.3 184

bc 182.5 c 181 177.9 178 d 175 Zn Oxide Competitor A Competitor B GemStone Zn 260 Competitor C Zn Sulfate Values are the average of all Zn levels from each source. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1 Does NOT include zero (0) added Zn level (i.e., CONTROL group). (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 30 Effect of Zn source on biological data for young growing chickens (0-21 days of age) 1 Relative Biological Value (RBV) % Liver Zn 126.12 Liver Zn (%) 125.00 117.98 120.00 115.00 110.93 110.00 103.03 105.00 100.00 100.00 95.00 90.00 88.35 85.00 Zn Oxide 1 Competitor A Competitor B GemStone Zn 260 Competitor C Zn Sulfate

Values are the average of all Zn levels from each source. Does NOT include zero (0) added Zn level (i.e., CONTROL group). (AHPharma, 2014-1) GS050115 31 GemStone OTM (Organic Trace Minerals) Broiler Trial 2014 Experiment 3 (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 32 Trial Design Treatment Description PHIBRO3-1 Zn Sulfate* (Negative Control) PHIBRO3-2 Zn Sulfate* (Positive Control) PHIBRO3-3,4 GemStone OTM PHIBRO3-5,6 OTM Competitor A PHIBRO3-7,8 OTM Competitor B PHIBRO3-9,10 OTM Competitor C PHIBRO3-11,12 OTM Competitor D * Inorganic Trace Minerals (ITM) (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 33 Average Body Weight (g) Day 21 Average Body Wt. (g) 724.51 725.00 a 719.79 720.00 715.86 719.13 a 715.00 714.94

a 712.50 ab ab 710.00 ab 705.00 702.44 700.00 4 SO n Z NC 00 (1 m pp b PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 12 m pp e on St em G 0 12 m pp tit pe m Co A or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co B or

0 12 m pp t it pe m Co C or 0 12 m pp tit pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 34 Day 0-21 Feed Conversion Feed Conversion 1.42 1.411 1.41 1.40 1.397 c 1.394 1.392 1.387 1.39 1.382 1.380 1.38 bc 1.37 ab ab ab a 1.36 a

1.35 1.34 1.33 NC 00 (1 m pp 4 SO n Z PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 12 m pp St m e G e on 0 12 m pp rA it to pe m o C 0 12 m pp rB it to pe m o C 0 12 m pp rC it to pe m o

C 0 12 m pp rD it to pe m o C Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 35 Average Body Wt. Gain (g) Day 0-21 Average Body Wt. Gain (g) 680.00 675.33 675.00 670.67 670.41 a 670.00 666.99 666.36 a 665.00 660.00 a 663.58 ab ab ab 655.00 653.57 650.00 4 SO n Z NC 00 (1 mb pp PC 40 (1 m

pp 4) O S Zn 0 12 m pp St m e G e on 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co A or 0 12 m pp tit pe m Co B or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co C or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05).

(AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 36 Day 0-21 Mortality % 0.5 Mortality % 0.46 0.4 0.31 0.31 0.3 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.1 NC 00 (1 m pp 4 SO n Z PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 12 m pp St m e G e on 0 12 m pp t it

pe m Co A or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co B or 0 12 m pp tit pe m Co C or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 37 Day 21 Bone Ash % Bone Ash % 42.0 41.87 a 41.67 41.54 41.5 41.41 a a 41.4 41.11

a 41.0 a a 40.5 40.0 39.5 39.5 39.0 NC 00 (1 4 SO n bZ m p p PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 12 m pp St m e G e on 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co A or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co

B or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co C or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 38 Average Body Weight (g) Day 21 Average Body Wt. (g) 750.00 740.27 739.87 740.00 735.30 730.46 730.00 a 720.00 a 724.86 ab 715.86 abc abc 710.00 702.44 c

700.00 690.00 d 680.00 NC 00 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 14 m pp St m e G e on 0 14 m pp tit pe m Co A or 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co B or 0 14 m

pp t it pe m Co C or 0 14 m pp tit pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 39 Day 0-21 Feed Conversion Feed Conversion 1.42 1.40 1.411 d 1.387 1.38 c 1.364 1.363 1.36 1.34 1.345 1.341 1.340 b b 1.32 a a a 1.30 NC 00

(1 m pp 4) O S Zn PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 14 m pp e on t S em G 0 14 m pp rA it to pe m o C 0 14 m pp rB it to pe m o C 0 14 m pp rC it to pe m o C 0 14 m pp rD it to

pe m o C Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 40 Average Body Wt. Gain (g) Average Body Wt. Gain (g) Day 0-21 700.00 691.42 690.82 690.00 686.52 ab 680.00 670.00 a 681.55 ab 675.84 666.99 ab ab 660.00 653.57 c 650.00 640.00 d 630.00 NC 00 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn PC 40 (1 m pp

4) O S Zn 0 14 m pp St em G e on 0 14 m pp tit pe m Co A or 0 14 m pp tit pe m Co B or 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co C or 0 14 m pp tit pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115

41 Day 0-21 Mortality % 0.5 0.46 0.46 Mortality % 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 NC 00 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 14 m pp St m e G e on 0 14 m pp

t it pe m Co A or 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co B or 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co C or 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 42 Day 21 Bone Ash % 42.85 43.0 42.5 42.91 a a 42.78 42.76 ab ab

42.38 42.0 abc 41.54 41.5 Bone Ash % 41.0 c 40.5 40.0 39.50 39.5 39.0 4) O S Zn NC 00 (1 md pp PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 14 m pp St m e G e on 0 14 m pp rA it to pe m o C 0 14 m pp

rB it to pe m o C 0 14 m pp rC it to pe m o C 0 14 m pp rD it to pe m o C Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 43 Average Body Weight (g) Average Body Wt. (g) Day 49 2700 2694.73 2695 2693.62 2694.19 2690 2693.78 2687.16 2683.85 2685 2680 2675 2670 2666.84 2665 2660 NC 00 (1 m pp 4 SO

n Z PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 12 m pp St m e G e on 0 12 m pp tit pe m Co A or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co B or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co C or 0 12 m pp t it

pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 44 Day 0-49 Feed Conversion Feed Conversion 1.960 1.953 c 1.940 1.925 1.932 1.929 1.926 1.919 b 1.920 ab b ab 1.905 ab 1.900 a 1.880 1.860 NC 00 (1 m pp 4 SO n Z PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O

S Zn 0 12 m pp e on t S em G 0 12 m pp rA it to pe m o C 0 12 m pp rB it to pe m o C 0 12 m pp rC it to pe m o C 0 12 m pp rD it to pe m o C Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 45 Average Body Wt. Gain (g) Average Body Wt. Gain (g) Day 0-49 2650.00 2645.86 2644.50

2645.00 2645.47 2644.60 2638.58 2640.00 2634.93 2635.00 2630.00 2625.00 2620.00 2617.97 2615.00 2610.00 NC 00 (1 m pp 4 SO n Z PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 12 m pp St m e G e on 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co A or 0 12

m pp t it pe m Co B or 0 12 m pp tit pe m Co C or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 46 Day 0-49 Mortality % Mortality % 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.33 0.3 0.2 0.17 0.17 0.1 NC 00 (1

m pp 4 SO n Z PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 12 m pp St m e G e on 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co A or 0 12 m pp tit pe m Co B or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co C or 0

12 m pp t it pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 47 Day 49 Bone Ash % Bone Ash % 42.0 41.64 41.56 41.53 41.5 ab 41.19 a 41.0 40.86 ab ab 40.69 40.44 40.5 ab ab 40.0 NC 00 (1 b m pp 4 SO n Z PC 40 (1 m pp

4) O S Zn 0 12 m pp St m e G e on 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co A or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co B or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co C or 0 12 m pp t it pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05).

(AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 48 Average Body Weight (g) Average Body Wt. (g) Day 49 2740.00 2734.92 2730.44 2730.00 2730.82 a ab 2720.00 2710.00 2700.00 2723.41 2720.43 ab ab a rB it to pe m Co rC it to pe m Co rD it to pe m Co 2694.73 2690.00 2680.00 2670.00 ab 2666.84 2660.00 4 SO n Z NC 00 (1 m pp b PC

40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 14 m pp St m e G e on 0 14 m pp rA it to pe m Co 0 14 m pp 0 14 m pp 0 14 m pp Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 49 Day 0-49 Feed Conversion Feed Conversion 1.96 1.953 f 1.94 1.925 1.92 de 1.90

1.901 1.898 1.885 1.879 1.88 1.879 bc abc 1.86 ab a 1.84 a 1.82 NC 00 (1 m pp 4 SO n Z PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 14 m pp e on St em G 0 14 m pp rA it to pe m o C 0 14

m pp rB it to pe m o C 0 14 m pp rC it to pe m o C 0 14 m pp rD it to pe m o C Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 50 Average Body Wt. Gain (g) Average Body Wt. Gain (g) Day 0-49 2700.00 2681.40 2680.00 2686.15 a ab 2681.97 2671.41 2660.00 2674.49 ab ab a 2645.86 2640.00 ab 2617.97 2620.00

2600.00 b 2580.00 NC 00 (1 m pp 4 SO n Z PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 14 m pp St m e G e on 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co A or 0 14 m pp tit pe m Co B or 0 14 m pp

t it pe m Co C or 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 51 Day 0-49 Mortality % Mortality % 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 NC 00 (1 m pp 4 SO n Z PC

40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0 14 m pp St m e G e on 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co A or 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co B or 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co C or 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co D

or Negative Control = NC (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 52 Day 49 Bone Ash % 44.0 43.71 43.5 43.23 43.16 43.27 a 42.96 43.0 a 42.5 a a a Bone Ash % 42.0 41.5 41.19 41.0 40.44 40.5 b 40.0 4 SO n Z NC 00 (1 mb pp PC 40 (1 m pp 4) O S Zn 0

14 m pp e on St em G 0 14 m pp tit pe m Co A or 0 14 m pp tit pe m Co B or 0 14 m pp t it pe m Co C or 0 14 m pp tit pe m Co D or Negative Control = NC Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). (AHPharma, 2014-3) GS050115 53 Summary Experiment 1

Experiment 2 20 or 30 ppm added Zn & Mn from GemStone OTM provided similar results as 40 ppm added Zn & Mn from sulfate sources for live performance and coccicial lesion scores 40 ppm added Zn & Mn from GemStone OTM improved live performance and coccidial lesion scores vs 40 ppm added Zn & Mn from sulfate sources Experiment 3 Relative biological value and zinc deposition measures of Zn from GemStone OTM was approximately 24% to 30% greater than Zn from zinc sulfate 20 ppm of added GemStone OTM provided similar results as 40 ppm zinc sulfate 40 ppm added Zn from GemStone OTM improved live performance vs 40 ppm added Zn sulfate Overall: GemStone OTMs are a highly available source of supplemental dietary trace minerals (AHPharma, 2014-1, 2014-2 and 2014-3) GS050115 54

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