Title

Title

Polymerisation Alkenes can be used to make polymers such as poly(ethene) and poly(propene). In these reactions many small molecules (monomers) join together to form very large molecules (polymers) Uses of polymers Polymers have many useful applications and new uses are being

developed for example: new packaging materials; waterproof coatings for fabrics; dental polymers; wound dressings; hydrogels; smart materials (including shape memory polymers) Linking properties of polymers to their uses For example, slime with different viscosities can be made from poly(ethenol). Solutions to the problem with

plastic Many polymers are not biodegradable, so they are not broken down by microbes and this can lead to problems with waste disposal Plastic bags are being made from polymers and cornstarch so that they can break down more easily. Biodegradable plastics made from cornstarch have been developed Producing ethanol

Ethanol can be produced by hydration of ethene with steam in the presence of a catalyst Ethanol can also be produced by fermentation with yeast, using renewable resources. This can be represented by: Sugar carbon dioxide + ethanol Oils Plant material

Crushed Lavender oil Pressed or distilled Water & impurities removed Groundnut oil

Olive oil Rapeseed oil Some fruits, seeds and nuts are rich in oils that can be extracted Energy Vegetable oils are important foods and fuels as they provide a

lot of energy. They also provide us with nutrients Vegetable oils have higher boiling points than water can so can be used to cook foods at higher temperatures than by boiling. This produces quicker cooking and different flavours but increases the energy that the food releases when it is eaten Testing saturation Vegetable oils that are unsaturated contain double

carbon=carbon bonds. These can be detected by reacting with bromine water HT only Vegetable oils that are unsaturated can be hardened by reacting them with hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst at about 60C. Hydrogen adds to the carbon=carbon double bonds. The hydrogenated oils have higher melting points so they are solids at room temperature, making them useful as spreads and in cakes and

pastries Oil and water Oils do not dissolve in water They can be used to produce emulsions Why do we use emulsions? Emulsions are thicker than oil or water and have

many uses that depend on their special properties They provide better texture, coating ability and appearance, for example in salad dressings, ice creams, cosmetics and paints HT only - Emulsifier molecule Mayonnaise is an emulsion. Unlike salad dressings it does not separate when it is left to stand. Why is this? Mayonnaise is made using egg yolk. This contain lecithin, which is a natural emulsifier.

emulsifier Emulsifiers have a hydrophilic (water loving) part and a hydrophobic (water hating) part. water Natural and artificial emulsifiers are used to stop oil and water separating in

emulsions. oil

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