Tobacco & Health

Tobacco & Health

TOBACCO & HEALTH By Dr. Abdus Sattar Chaudhry Senior lecturer Department of community medicine Rawalpindi Medical College Rawalpindi, Pakistan 1 Facts about smoking

1/3rd of world population-Smoker Males: > 1 billion Females: > 250 million Industrialized Countries % of Male smokers: 50% % of Female smokers 22% Developing countries Males 35% Females 9% (Source: World Health Report)

2 Facts about smoking Three million deaths annually because of smoking means one death after every 8 seconds. Ten million deaths annually expected by 2020 - means one death after every three seconds. Developed countries have reduced smoking by 10% while developing

countries have increased by 60% after 1970. 3 Pakistan Picture Current Smokers Approximately 15% Pakistan is among 8 countries in which smoking trend will rise in next 20 years. Pakistan will be leading in the race of tobacco sale in EMRO region in next 20 years. 4 Study of smoking in

RMC students(2001) Total No. of students; 182 Male: Females: 68 114 Smokers: Males: Females: 18%

7% 5 Types of tobacco smoking Cigarette - Most common and most harmful Sheesha Bidi

Tobacco chewing Hookah(Hubble bubble) Cigar Kreteks(clove cigarettes) Snuff Moist & Dry 6 E-cigarette Causes of smoking Usually the adolescents (mostly of 10-15 yrs) indulge in smoking as a result of curiosity,

adventurism, rebelliousness and adulthood, a manly and masculine act that will lead them to happiness, fitness, wealth, power and sexual success. Attractive advertisements influence the immature and unstable minds. 7 Composition of tobacco About 4000 toxic substances are

present in tobacco Most important and dangerous constituents: Nicotine Carbon Monoxide Tar 8 Effects of Nicotine Smokers have to maintain a level of nicotine in the blood for normal working.

Smokers have to smoke to avoid the discomfort experienced while not smoking. 9 Consequences of smoking Economic loss Health loss Socio-cultural loss Psychological loss 10

Smoking and Diseases An important causative/risk factor for various diseases. About 25 diseases caused/aggravated by smoking. e.g. Lung cancer: 80-90% deaths due to smoking. Incidence 10 times more than non-smokers. Chronic bronchitis Emphysema: 80- 95% Ischaemic heart disease: 20-30% deaths . Risk is twice than non-smokers Obstructive peripheral vascular disease 11

Smoking and diseases Cerebrovascular disease Cancer of tongue, oesophagus, larynx & pancreas, Gastro-duodenal ulcers Cancer of the cervix and endometrium Cancer of the urinary bladder Still births, abortions

Neonatal deaths Fracture of hip, wrist and vertebrae 12 Occupational Hazards & Smoking Effect of smoking in the presence of pollutants like asbestos, cotton, radioactive environment is either multiplicative or additive. 13

Smoking during pregnancy Foetal retardation and growth retardation in the children. Children of smokers are more prone to become smokers later on. 14 Effects of Second Hand (Passive) Smoking(SHS)

Children Sudden infant death Respiratory distress Otitis media Adults Leads to discomfort, distress to asthmatics Nicotine is detected in blood and urine of passive smokers. Passive smoking by adults may lead to Ca-cervix, CA lung, and coronary heart disease. 15 Treatment

Drugs Nicotine replacement therapy Patches Gums Nasal sprays Inhalers E-cigarettes Hypnotics Group therapy 16

Treatment Real Treatment is by Motivation Commitment Determination and Effort and support in the struggle to quit smoking. 17 Preventive measures

Recommendations of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) should be implemented. Govt.s responsibility for implementation of recommendations and legislation. Ascertain the existence of smoking as health problem. Encourage not to start smoking. Encourage to stop smoking. 18 Multi-sectoral approach. Preventive measures

Anti-smoking health education to general public but special emphasis to focus on children and to the occupational groups. Highlighting the positive effects of NOT smoking and QUITING smoking. Awareness for the rights of non-smokers. Legislative action 19 Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI) of WHO Bans on direct and indirect tobacco advertising Tobacco tax and price increases Smoke-free environments in all public and workplaces Large clear graphic health messages on tobacco packaging

20 WORLD NO TOBACCO DAY 31ST. MAY 2011 THEME FOR THE YEAR Framework Convention on Tobacco Control 21 Obligations for the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

Protect public health policies from commercial and other vested interests of the tobacco industry. Adopt price and tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco. Protect people from exposure to tobacco smoke. Regulate the contents of tobacco products. Regulate tobacco product disclosures. Regulate the packaging and labeling of tobacco products. 22

Obligations for the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Warn people about the dangers of tobacco. Ban tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Offer people help to end their addiction to tobacco. Control the illicit trade in tobacco products. Ban sales to and by minors.

Support economically viable alternative to tobacco growing. 23 BEACON OF HOPE FOR THE QUITTERS 24 When smokers quit Just 20 minutes after the smokers have smoked the last cigarette, their body begins an ongoing series of beneficial changes. After 20 minutes:

Blood pressure drops to normal. Pulse rate drops to normal. Temperature of hands becomes normal. After 8 hours: Carbon monoxide level in blood drops to normal Oxygen level in blood increases to normal. 25 When smokers quit After 24 hours: Chance of heart attack decreases

After 48 hours: Nerve endings start growing. Ability to smell and taste is enhanced. Walking becomes easier. After 2 weeks 3 months: Circulation improves. Lung function increases up to 30%. 26 When smokers quit

After 1-9 months: Coughing, sneezing, congestion, fatigue, shortness of breath decrease. Cilia re-grow in the lungs, increasing ability to handle mucous, clean the lungs and to reduce infection. 1 year: Risk of coronary heart disease is half that of a smoker. 5 years after:

Stroke risk nonsmoker. is reduced to that of a 27 When smokers quit

After 10 years: The lung cancer death rate is about half that of a continuing smoker's. The risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas decreases. After 15 years: The risk of coronary heart disease is that of a nonsmokers. (Source: American Cancer society) 28 RESOLUTION ABOUT SMOKING IN

COLLEGE & HOSPITALS 29 THANK YOU FOR NOT SMOKING 30

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