Too much of a good thing - d2cax41o7ahm5l.cloudfront.net
Too much of a good thing The Female Athlete Triad: Toward improved screening and management Asma Javed Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Mayo Clinic, Rochester Disclosure
No relevant financial disclosure No conflict of interest Objectives Define the components of the female athlete triad and their epidemiology. Review current screening and management guidelines and address barriers to identification. Devise a plan for primary care physicians to screen for,
identify and treat the triad. Female Athlete Triad First defined in 1992 by American College of Sports Medicine as presence of: -Eating disorder -Amenorrhea -Osteoporosis
Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992 revised 2007. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad . Trends: Think of them as epidemics Malcolm Gladwell The Tipping point Tipping Point in female athletics Title IX: Educational Amendment Act 1972 1972 - 1 in 27 high school girls played a varsity sport.
2010- 1 in 2 high school girls played a varsity sport. NFSHSA. 2009-10 high school athletics participation survey. How common is the Female Athlete Triad? Lean/aesthetic sport Vs. Non-Lean sport athletes - Prevalence 2-3 times higher The Prevalence of Disordered Eating, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Low Bone Mineral Density among US Collegiate Athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutr Exercise Metab; 2006 Prevalence of the Female Athlete Triad Syndrome Among High School Athletes. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2006 How does the triad occur?
Key Feature: Low energy availability Energy availability = Energy Intake Exercise Energy Expenditure Energy Availability > Resting Metabolic Rate Low energy availability < Resting Metabolic Rate Normal energy availability- 45 kcal/kg FFM/day LH pulsatility disrupted < 30 kcal/kg FFM/day No specific body fat percentage below which athlete is at risk Loucks A & Nattiv A. The female athlete triad. Lancet 2009; 366:549-550. Female Athlete Triad: Pathophysiology
Menstrual dysfunction is not a normal part of training! Javed et al Female Athlete Triad: Toward improved screening and management. Mayo Clin Proc 2013 Female Athlete Triad: Pathophysiology Bone Mineral Loss (Low estrogen and energy) Females gain more than 50% of skeletal mass during adolescence Amenorrheic adolescent athletes lose 2% of bone mass/yr (menopause) Female athlete triad and stress fractures. Orthop Clin North Am. 2009
Increased vertebral bone mineral in response to reduced exercise in amenorrheic runners.West J Med.1987 Is exercise good or bad? Amenorrheic athletes (AA) Eumenorrheic athletes (EA) Non athletes
Female Athlete Tetrad? Endothelial dysfunction has been reported in young athletes, similar to post-menopausal woman May herald premature cardiovascular events and further adverse effects on bone in amenorrheic athletes.
Lanser EM et al The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction. PM R.2011 Study population: professional dancers 18-35 yo N = 22 Outcome: flow mediated dilation (FMD) Result: FMD values significantly correlated with estrogen and BMD Conclusion: Endothelial dysfunction in professional dancers correlates with low estrogen and BMD which has implications on CV and bone health.
Hoch et al Association between the female triad athlete and endothelial dysfunction in dancers Clin J Sport Med, 2011 Female athlete triad: How are we doing? 2009- 29% of 128 physicians surveyed correctly identified all 3 triad components. Clinician practices for the management of amenorrhea in the adolescent and young adult athlete. J Adolesc Health 2007 Apr Physician Recognition, Evaluation, and Treatment of the Female Athlete Triad Elizabeth Joy Abstract 793 ACSM 2009 What are the barriers to evaluation? What is the ideal body weight? BMI changes over time
1927 1946 2012 Is Miss America an undernourished role model? JAMA. 2000 Mar 22-29;283(12):1569. Female Athlete Triad Screening, Diagnosis and Management
Current recommendations provided by The Female Athlete Triad Coalition Screening recommendations Screen all female athletes with a 12 question yes/no female athlete triad questionnaire For those defined as at risk for the triad, detailed interview and additional physical examination and/or laboratory testing
recommended. Female athlete Triad coalition 2009, revised 2014 AAP/AAFP Screening 7 of 12 items recommended by triad coalition present 2010 American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine,
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine. The at risk female athlete: Detailed Evaluation Low energy Availability Screening Tools for Eating Disorders: ESP, SCOFF* for physicians Referral to registered dietitian 3- or 7-day food record
Resting and Exercise energy expenditure Morgan JF, Reid F, Lacey JH (2000). "The SCOFF questionnaire: a new screening tool for eating disorders.". West J Med 172 (3) The at risk female athlete Detailed Evaluation Athletic amenorrhea Diagnosis of exclusion
Rule out pregnancy Chronic illness - CBC, CMP, ESR Thyroid or ovarian dysfunction TSH, LH, FSH Pituitary tumor- Prolactin, consider imaging Adrenal pathology- testosterone, DHEA-S, 17-OHP Progesterone Challenge - Medroxyprogesterone acetate orally 5-10 mg for 10 days
Medical concerns in the female athlete Pediatrics Sept 2000, revised 2010 The at risk female athlete Detailed Evaluation Bone Mineral Loss (ISCD) recommends use of age and sex matched Z-scores The ACSM recommends DXA scans for premenopausal women with
(i) oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea >6 months or (ii) disordered eating > 6 months; (iii) stress fracture Sports Med. 2011 Jul. Ducher. Obstacles in the optimization of bone health outcomes in the female athlete triad. Female athlete Triad: Management Multidisciplinary Management Non pharmacologic Pharmacologic
Waldrop, J. Early identification and interventions for female athlete triad. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 2005 Temme KE, Hoch AZ. Recognition and rehabilitation of the female athlete triad/tetrad: a multidisciplinary approach. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2013 Non pharmacologic Management Increase energy intake, Reduce energy expenditure Strongest evidence- Wt. gain (1-2 kg) or 10% less exercise Resumption of menses in 11 months Eat by discipline, not appetite Psychotherapy for athletes with ED
Early referral to mental health provider Loucks A & Nattiv A. The female athlete triad. Lancet 2005 J. Casper et al Resumption of menses with non-pharmacologic management in amenorrheic collegiate athletes Clin J Sport Med 2006 Non pharmacologic Management Change work-out routine from cardiovascular to weight-training Progressive high intensity training
Plyometric exercises The role of the physical therapist is crucial Papanek PE. The female athlete triad: an emerging role for physical therapy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2003; 33(10); 594-614 Pantano KJ. Strategies used by physical therapists in the U.S. for treatment and prevention of the female athlete triad. Phys Ther Sport 2009 What are the barriers to evaluation? Inadequate knowledge regarding the triad, brief visits
Menstrual cycles >35 days in 65% of girls 1-2 years post menarche Athletes may welcome menstrual interruption What is the ideal body weight? Pharmacologic Management Estrogen therapy- Where is the evidence? Few trials in athletes, mixed results OCPs not of benefit in bone mass accrual in Anorexia. Cyclic menses induced by OCP falsely reassuring.
OCPs decreases IGF-1 levels and free testosterone. Estrogen Therapy: AAP Current recommendations OCPs to prevent further loss of BMD in an athlete with amenorrhea > 16 years of age if BMD is decreasing despite adequate nutrition and body weight. Cobh KL et al. The effect of oral contraceptives on hone mass and stress fractures in female runners. Med Sei Sports Exerc 2007 Warren MP et al. Persistent osteopenia in ballet dancers with amenorrhea and delayed menarche despite hormone therapy: a longitudinal study. Frtil Steril 2003 Rickenlund et al. Effects of oral contraceptives on body composition and physical performance in female athletes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2004 Pharmacologic Management
Calcium and vitamin D supplementation Never prospectively assessed IOC recommends calcium intake of 1500 mg/d Vitamin D is 400 to 800IU/d Future Directions Bisphosphonates, Rh-IGF-1, Rh-Human Leptin, Transdermal estrogen Recombinant Human Leptin in Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea Welt et al N Engl J Med 2004 Grinspoon et al. Effects of recombinant human IGF-I and oral contraceptive administration on bone density in anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002
Stewart GW, Brunet ME, Manning MR, et al. Treatment of stress fraetures in athletes with intravenous pamidronate. Clin J Sport Med 2005 Female Athlete Triad: Prevention Change the Mindset, Involve Athlete: Educate physicians, physical therapists, dietitians, coaches, athletes, parents, athletic trainers and school administrators Nutrition education: Reduce emphasis on body weight Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance 2009 Female athlete triad coalition 2009 www.olympic.org/hbi
Resources American College of Sports Medicine www.acsm.org 2. ACSM Female Athlete Triad Position Stand, 2007 http://www.femaleathletetriad.org/~triad/wpcontent/ uploads2008/10ACSM_Fe male_Athlete_Triad_Position_Stand_2007.pdf 3. American Dietetic Association Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutritionists (SCAN) Dietetic Practice Group www.scandpg.org 4. Female Athlete Triad Coalition www.femaleathletetriad.org/
5. International Olympic Committee NCAA Coaches Handbook, Managing the Female Athlete Triad http://www.femaleathletetriad.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2008/10/NCAA-Managing-the-Female-Athlete-Triad.pdf 6. National Athletic Trainers Association Position Statement: Preventing, Detecting, and Managing Disordered Eating in Athletes, 2008 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2231403/ 7. Nutrition and Athletic Performance Joint Position Paper http://www.eatright.org/About/Content.aspx?id=8365
8. Womens Sports Foundation www.womenssportsfoundation.org/ Thank You! Please direct any questions to [email protected]
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