Track E0 AfNOG workshop April 23-27 2007 Abuja, Nigeria
Network Management & Monitoring Overview Unix & Network Management June 16-18 Papeete, French Polynesia Hervey Allen, Phil Regnauld Introduction This is a big topic... We'll try to respond to what you would like to hear. There are a lot of tools to choose from: Open Source
Commercial Linux/Unix-based Windows-based Network Vendor tools (Cisco, Juniper, others) No one combination of tools is correct for everyone. What you need to know about your network will drive your choice of tools. Overview What is network management and monitoring? Why network management? The Network Operation Center Network monitoring systems and tools Statistics and accounting tools Fault/problem management
Ticket systems (more tomorrow) Configuration management & monitoring The big picture... What is network management? System & Service monitoring Resource measurement/monitoring Capacity planning, availability Performance monitoring (RTT, throughput) Statistics & Accounting/Metering Fault Management (Intrusion Detection)
Reachability, availability Fault detection, troubleshooting, and tracking Ticketing systems, help desk Change management & configuration monitoring What we'll cover today... SNMP Configuration & Change Management Logging Flows
RRDTool/MRTG Nagios Documentation Ticketing Cacti and Smokeping The Big picture Notifications - Monitoring - Data collection - Accounting Ticket - Change control & monitoring - NOC Tools - Ticket system Ticket Ticket - Improvements - Upgrades
Ticket Ticket - User complaints - Requests - Fix problems - Capacity planning - Availability (SLAs) - Trends - Detect problems Why network management? Make sure the network is up and running. Need to monitor it. Deliver projected SLAs (Service Level Agreements) Depends on policy What does your management expect?
What do your users expect? What do your customers expect? What does the rest of the Internet expect? Is 24x7 good enough ? There's no such thing as 100% uptime Why network management? 2 Since you have switches that support SNMP Use public domain tools to ping every switch and router in your network and report that back to you Nagios http://nagios.org/
Sysmon - http://www.sysmon.org/ Open NMS - http://www.opennms.org/ Goal is to know your network is having problems before the users start calling. Why network management ? 3 What does it take to deliver 99.9 % uptime? Need to shutdown 1 hour / week?
30,5 x 24 = 762 hours a month (762 (762 x .999)) x 60 = 45 minutes maximum of downtime a month! (762 - 4) / 762 x 100 = 99.4 % Remember to take planned maintenance into account in your calculations, and inform your users/customers if they are included/excluded in the SLA How is availability measured? In the core? End-to-end? From the Internet?) Why network management? 4 Know when to upgrade Keep an audit trace of changes
Is your bandwidth usage too high? Where is your traffic going? Do you need to get a faster line, or more providers? Is the equipment too old? Record all changes Makes it easier to find cause of problems due to upgrades and configuration changes Where to consolidate all these functions? In the Network Operation Center (NOC) The Network Operations Center (NOC) Where it all happens Coordination of tasks Status of network and services Fielding of network-related incidents and complaints
Where the tools reside (NOC server) Documentation including: Network diagrams database/flat file of each port on each switch Network description Documentation Document Switches What is each port connected to? Can be simple text file with one line for every port in a switch:
health-switch1, port 1, Room 29 Directors office health-switch1, port 2, Room 43 Receptionist health-switch1, port 3, Room 100 Classroom health-switch1, port 4, Room 105 Professors Office .. health-switch1, port 25, uplink to health-backbone Make this file available for all networking and help desk staff. Possibly available via your NOC, or on a wiki, such as Trac. Remember to label your ports! Documentation: Labeling Nice :-) Documentation: Diagrams Documentation: Diagramming Software Windows Diagramming Software
Visio: http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/visio/FX100487861033.aspx Ezdraw: http://www.edrawsoft.com/ Open Source Diagramming Software Dia: http://live.gnome.org/Dia Cisco reference icons http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac50/ac47/2.html Nagios Exchange: http://www.nagiosexchange.org/ Network monitoring systems and tools
Three kinds of tools Diagnostic tools used to test connectivity, ascertain that a location is reachable, or a device is up usually active tools Monitoring tools tools running in the background (daemons or services), which collect events, but can also initiate their own probes (using diagnostic tools), and recording the output, in a scheduled fashion. Performance tools tell us how our network is handling traffic flow. Network monitoring systems and tools - 2 Performance Tools Key is to look at each router interface (probably dont
need to look at switch ports). Two common tools: http://cricket.sourceforge.net/ http://www.mrtg.com/ Network monitoring systems and tools - 3 Active tools Passive tools Ping test connectivity to a host Traceroute show path to a host MTR combination of ping + traceroute
SNMP collectors (polling) log monitoring, SNMP trap receivers, NetFlow Automated tools SmokePing record and graph latency to a set of hosts, using ICMP (Ping) or other protocols MRTG/RRD record and graph bandwidth usage on a switch port or network link, at regular intervals Network monitoring systems and tools - 4 Network & Service Monitoring tools Nagios server and service monitor Can monitor pretty much anything HTTP, SMTP, DNS, Disk space, CPU usage, ... Easy to write new plugins (extensions)
Basic scripting skills are required to develop simple monitoring jobs Perl, Shellscript... Many good Open Source tools Zabbix, ZenOSS, Hyperic, ... Use them to monitor reachability and latency in your network Parent-child dependency mechanisms are very useful! Network monitoring systems and tools - 5 Monitor your critical Network Services
DNS Radius/LDAP/SQL SSH to routers How will you be notified ? Don't forget log collection! Every network device (and UNIX and Windows servers as well) can report system events using syslog You MUST collect and monitor your logs! Not doing so is one of the most common mistakes when doing network monitoring Network Management Protocols
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol Industry standard, hundreds of tools exist to exploit it Present on any decent network equipment UNIX and Windows implement this as well Network throughput, errors, CPU load, temperature, ... Disk space, running processes, ... SSH and telnet It's also possible to use scripting to automate monitoring of hosts and services SNMP Tools
Net SNMP tool set http://net-snmp.sourceforge.net/ Very simple to build simple tools One that builds snapshots of which IP is used by which Ethernet address Another that builds shapshots of which Ethernet addresses exist on which port on which switch. Statistics & accounting tools Traffic accounting and analysis what is your network used for, and how much Useful for Quality of Service, detecting abuses, and billing (metering) Dedicated protocol: NetFlow Identify traffic flows: protocol, source, destination, bytes Different tools exist to process the information
Flowtools, flowc NFSen ... Statistics & accounting tools Non-netflow based tools ipfm pmacct Fault & problem management
Is the problem transient? Overload, temporary resource shortage Is the problem permanent? Equipment failure, link down How do you detect an error? Monitoring! Customer complaints A ticket system is essential Open ticket to track an event (planned or failure) Define dispatch/escalation rules
Who handles the problem? Who gets it next if no one is available? Ticketing systems Why are they important ? Focal point for helpdesk communication Use it to track all communications Both internal and external Events originating from the outside:
Track all events, failures and issues customer complaints Events originating from the inside: System outages (direct or indirect) Planned maintenance / upgrade Remember to notify your customers! Ticketing systems - 2 Use ticket system to follow each case, including internal communication between technicians Each case is assigned a case number Each case goes through a similar life cycle:
New Open ... Resolved Closed Ticketing systems - 3 Workflow: Ticket System Helpdesk Tech Eqpt ---------------------------------------------------------------T T
T T query | | | | from ---->| | | | customer |--- request --->| | | <- ack. -- | | | | | |<-- comm --> | | | | |- fix issue -> eqpt
| |<- report fix -| | customer <-|<-- respond ----| | | | | | | Ticketing systems - 4 Some ticketing software systems: rt trac heavily used worldwide. A classic ticketing system that can be customized to your
location. Somewhat difficult to install and configure. Handles large-scale operations. A hybrid system that includes a wiki and project management features. Ticketing system is not as robust as rt, but works well. Often used for tracking group projects. Network Intrusion Detection Systems - NIDS These are systems that observe all of your network traffic and report when it sees specific kinds of problems Finds hosts that are infected or are acting as spamming sources. SNORT is the most common open source tool http://www.snort.org/ Configuration management & monitoring
Record changes to equipment configuration, using revision control (also for configuration files) Inventory management (equipment, IPs, interfaces, etc.) Use versioning control As simple as: cp named.conf named.conf.20070827-01 For plain configuration files: CVS, Subversion Mercurial Configuration management & monitoring - 2
Traditionally, used for source code (programs) Works well for any text-based configuration files Also for binary files, but less easy to see differences For network equipment: RANCID (Automatic Cisco configuration retrieval and archiving, also for other equipment types) The Big picture - Again Notifications - Monitoring - Data collection - Accounting Ticket - Change control &
monitoring - NOC Tools - Ticket system Ticket Ticket - Improvements - Upgrades Ticket Ticket - User complaints - Requests - Fix problems - Capacity planning - Availability (SLAs) - Trends - Detect problems Summary of Open Source Solutions
Performance Net Management Change Mgmt Mercurial Cricket Big Brother Rancid (routers) IFPFM Big Sister RCS flowc Cacti Subversion mrtg Hyperic Security/NIDS netflow
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