Trade Liberalization - EIU

Trade Liberalization International Approach GATT WTO Regional Approach EU NAFTA The International Approach General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade The Agreement MFN Clause No Quotas

Settlement of Trade Disputes Sponsorship of Multinational Tariff Reduction Negotiations The World Trade Organization Rules and Standards for Trade Policy Settlement of Trade Disputes Sponsorship of Multinational Tariff Reduction Negotiations

Avg. Cuts in Tariffs 1934 - 1993 Pre-GATT First Round Second Round Third Round

Fourth Round Dillon Round Kennedy Round Tokyo Round Uruguay Round 1934-1947 1947 1949 1950-51 1955-56 1961-62 1964-67 1974-1979 1986-1993

33.2% 21.1 1.9 3.0 3.5 2.4 36.0 29.6 33.3 The World Trade Organization The WTO was created in 1995 to act as a forum for trade negotiations and serve as an impartial international court to resolve trade disputes.

The WTO has had trouble with both roles: The big boys (U.S. and E.U.) cant agree. The little guys feel cheated The Regional Approach The regional approach to trade liberalization requires some degree of economic integration. Economic integration is the process of abolishing discrimination among economic units belonging to different states by forming trade blocs. Types of Economic Blocs A Free Trade Area Tariffs among the participating countries are

abolished, but each country retains its own tariffs against nonmembers. NAFTA A Customs Union Tariffs among the participating countries are abolished, and tariffs against nonmembers will be equalized. Types of Economic Blocs A Common Market Tariffs among the participating countries are abolished, a common set of external restrictions is adopted, and restrictions on factor movements are abolished.

An Economic Union Combines the suppression of restrictions on commodity and factor movements with some degree of harmonization of national economic policies. The European Union (EU) Types of Economic Blocs Total Economic Integration Requires not only the unification of monetary, fiscal, social, and countercyclical policies but also the establishment of a supra-national authority whose decisions are binding for the member states. The United States of America

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