Training and Development

Training Training & Development Definition The systematic acquisition of attitudes, concepts, knowledge, roles, or skills, that result in improved performance at work. Training

skill enhancement processes for non-managerial jobs Development skill enhancement processes for managerial jobs Topics Who needs what kind of training? Needs analysis Learning objectives Learning environment How should training be delivered? Instructional techniques

Was training effective? Measuring criteria Experimental design (interpreting results) Training validity The Classic Training System Needs assessment Organizational analysis Task/ KSA analysis Person analysis Development of criteria Training objectives Training Validity

Transfer Validity Selection & design of training program Intraorganizational Validity Training Use of evaluation models Interorganizational Validity Training Needs Assessment

Organizational Analysis Examines systemwide factors that effect the transfer of newly acquired skills to the workplace Person Analysis Who needs what kind of training Task Analysis Provides statements of the activities and work operations performed on the job

Training Objectives Formal description of what trainee should be able to do after training Objectives Convey training goals Provide a framework to develop course content Provide a basis for assessing training achievement Characteristics of effective objectives Statement of desired capability or behavior Specify conditions under which behavior will be performed

State the criterion of acceptable performance Considerations in Training Design Designing a learning environment Learning principles Trainee characteristics Instructional techniques Phases of Skill Acquisition Procedural Knowledge Knowledge Compilation Acquiring

Declarative Knowledge Back Important Trainee Characteristics Trainee readiness Trainability tests Have prospective trainees perform a sample of tasks that reflect KSAs needed for job Trainee motivation Arousal, persistence, and direction Factors related to high motivation

Self-efficacy Locus of Control Commitment to Career Back Instructional Techniques Traditional Approaches Classroom Instruction Lecture and Discussion Case Study Role Playing Self-Directed Learning Readings, Workbooks, Correspondence Courses

Programmed Instruction Simulated/Real Work Settings Vestibule training Apprentice training On-the-job training Job Rotation/Cross Training New Training Technologies Distance Learning CD-Rom and Interactive Multimedia Web-based Instruction Intelligent Tutoring Systems Virtual Reality Training Kirkpatricks Evaluation Criteria Level 1 Reaction Did trainees like the training and feel it was

useful Level 2 Learning Did trainees learn material stated in the objectives Level 3 Behavioral Are trainees using what was learned back on the job Level 4 Results Are benefits greater than costs Assessing Training Outcomes Goal is to identify training as cause of changes in

on-the-job behavior or organizational results. Experimental designs help researchers to link training to results There are a number of reasons (threats) why it is difficult to determine impact of training on results The Wisdom Pill Experimental Design Controlling potential confounds Goal of experiment is to rule out alternate explanations of what affected dependent variable

Confounds are threats to internal validity Can be controlled through appropriate experimental design and procedures Internal Validity Confounds Controlled by Experimental Design 1. History 2. Maturation

3. Testing 4. Instrumentation 5. Statistical Regression 6. Selection 7. Mortality 8. Selection-Maturation Confounds NOT controlled by Experimental Design 1. Diffusion of Treatment 2. Compensatory Equalization

3. Compensatory Rivalry Pre-experimental Designs Post with no Control Group Training Disadvantages Controls none of the threats to internal or external validity Basically worthless Posttest Advantages Can potentially provide information for

speculation about training effectiveness Pre-experimental Designs Pre Post with no Control Group Pretest Training Cannot rule out any threats to internal or external validity Except possibly mortality

Posttest Advantages Can determine if change occurred May be able to understand mortality Experimental Designs Posttest-Only Control Group Design Experimental Training Posttest

Group Differences Random Assignment Control Posttest Experimental Designs Pre Post with Control Group Pretest Experimental Training

Group Differences Pretest Posttest Group Differences Control Posttest Experimental Designs Solomon Four Group Design

Group 1 Pretest Training Posttest Group 2 Pretest No Training Posttest

Group 3 Training Posttest Group 4 No Training Posttest Assessing Training Program Validity Training Validity Transfer Validity Intraorganizational Validity Interorganizational Validity

Key Dates for Group Project April 30th Training Objectives Due May 12th Evaluation Materials Due May 14th and 19th Training Delivered June 9th Group Report Due

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