AC Film Capacitors New Bedford Engineering support: Rui Batista Hector Casanova Sales support: Jack Chmura Program manager: Ann Rodrigues Leca Mexicali customer support: Jorge Chavez Mexicali engineering: Benjamin Sanchez Introduction Construction
Manufacturing Materials Design integration Processes Major types Characteristics of each type Competition Applications and markets Construction
Metal case - Oil filled or impregnated UL / CSA protected / fail safe to 10,000 AMPS Comply with EIA-456-A Metalized polypropylene film Best film for AC, low DF, good cap / volume Steel or aluminum cases Quick connect terminations or threaded studs Wrap and fill
Tape extension is end capped with resin Axial leads or threaded terminals Board or bus mount Key materials Metalized polypropylene film Zinc or Zinc / Aluminum alloy with reinforced heavy edge Zinc keeps cap loss over time to a minimum
Self healing property clears away defects preventing failure Low DF (0 = 0.0002) keeps heating down) keeps heating down Heavy edge improves connection and current handling Dielectric fluid Canola oil Low moisture content <100PPM Non swelling Environmentally safe Design / Testing integration New Bedford, MA ISO 9001:2) keeps heating down008 Design and development Twenty test chambers capable of 400C Computer aided designs stress, voltage / temperature
Over 2) keeps heating down,2) keeps heating down00 KVA of test capacity in place Test voltages up to 4000 Vac and 3000 Vdc Step stress testing (100% 12) keeps heating down5% 150% 2) keeps heating down00% X Vrated) Millions of component test hours are recorded annually Long term testing of standard designs 4 to 8k hours Surveillance testing of production units Life data analysis (QALT, HALT, SHALT) Constantly evaluating materials and processes Manufacturing process Flow chart - Mexicali Wind
Endspray Heat treat Clear / test Fluid treatment Lead attach Assemble Tape wrap Fill/impregnate /test Resin fill
Leak test Test / pack Test / pack Fluid treatment Fluid treatment critical for capacitor performance Enervac system Vaporizes water from oil under vacuum Dehydrates, filters, purifies, and de aerates oil Additives enhance performance Moisture and acid scavengers added to fluid
2) keeps heating down00 PPM 50 PPM Winding Equipment 11 State of the art winders (Arcotronics, Koem, Unitronics, and Metar) Controlled tension prevents film stretching
and deforming Tightly wound sections high cap / volume Can wind flattened sections Environment Class 100k clean room Humidity and temperature controlled Anti room conditions film prior to use End Spray
Pure zinc is melted and atomized then propelled onto the ends of the capacitor section This zinc spray coating serves as a means of connecting all the internal capacitor plates as well as providing a means for external connection Key variables are air pressure, current, and distance have been optimized via DOE Zinc particle size and temperature are carefully controlled which prevent damage to film at this critical interface
Heat treatment cure or baking Soak Heat Time Heat treat profile critical Slow ramp up and ramp down Capacitance is set Physical properties set
Brush clean Clearing Brush clean Excess zinc from endspray is removed from the section body AC / DC clearing (lead weld) Low voltage AC removes major process related shorts (zinc) DC voltage is applied in steps then polarity is reversed and applied in steps Clearing removes imperfections in the film Dielectric strength is checked Capacitance and DF are measured and compared to targets Leads are welded in place Lead attach (CDE advantage)
Combination of resistance weld and solder Five mil flat tin plated copper tab is attached to the zinc surface Controlled weld / solder Minimizes damage of the endspray / film interface Solder assures long life connection in oil filled system (tabs wont fall off due to oxidation) Competitors use solder only which damages zinc endspray interface or weld only which can oxidize and prematurely disconnect in a fluid environment Assembly Five assembly lines featuring balanced flow
Sections assembled into cases Insulated top and bottom Cover welded to tabs Impregnation system Vacuum Impregnation Used for certain design criteria Parts are dried under vacuum approaching 100 micron Fluid enters tanks and fills capacitors Final test / pack Automatically filled
Seaming Cover to can Test UL - High pot Label and pack Major Types Motor run HID lighting Power electronics Line conditioning Harmonic filtering Power factor correction
Motor run type Markets Room air conditioners HVAC aftermarket distribution HVAC unitary equipment mfgs Fan and compressor Motor / air compressor Oxygen generators Low torque applications Swimming pool Petroleum pumps Capacitor inside Dog house Motor run type Characteristics Capacitance up to 100F Voltages up to 660 Vac
370 & 440 common Single and dual ratings Round or oval Steel or aluminum case Temperature to 70 C (85 C specials) Frequency 60 Hz UL recognized protected Reliable 60,000 h life HID lighting type (High intensity Discharge) Markets HID Fixture / Ballast Mfg Metal Halide, HPS, MV Neon signs Characteristics
Capacitance to 60 F Voltage up to 660 Vac Temperature 90C /100C UL recognized protected External discharge resistor Reliable 60,000 h life Power electronics Line / Harmonic filters Markets Uninterruptable power supply (UPS) Tuned filter (harmonic reduction) Input filter Line conditioner / power supply Noise suppression
Surge protection VSD (Variable Speed Drives) Characteristics Capacitance up to 140 F Voltages to 62) keeps heating down0 V Temperature up to 70 C Very low ESR Frequency 60 Hz + harmonic content High current handling Threaded stud Aluminum case
Power electronics AC Filters Markets PWM filter Input filters Characteristics Capacitance up to 2) keeps heating down50 F Up to 900 Vac Temperature up to 85 C Current up to 100 A Wrap and fill Male or female threaded
Power Factor Correction 1 & 3 Phase harmonic filtering Market OEM PFC systems Eaton, GE, KVAR, Schneider, Steelman, Arteche Inelap Applications Inverter out put filter Grid tied Industrial PFC Characteristics Temp to 55 C Voltage up to 62) keeps heating down0 Vac (RMS)
Protected to 10,000 AFC Round aluminum cases Terminal block connector Built in discharge resistors Competition Motor run Lighting Power Electronics Regal Beloit (old GE Mex) NGM (Mex) China imports Shine Shengye Many Others Aerovox
NGM (Mex) Regal Beloit (old GE Mex) AEG (CZ) American Shizuki Epcos Electronicon Electronic concepts Vishay Applications Markets Motor run Lighting Room AC Unitary AC Fans Compressors Refrigeration
After Market LVPF Oxygen generators HID ballast UPS Harmonic filter HID fixtures Input filter Fluorescent VSD Neon Inverter / converter Ferro resonant Three phase filter Power Electronics Questions? What is the dielectric of choice for AC capacitors? What sprayed on metal
serves to connect the metalized polypropylene layers together? Name four markets for motor run capacitors? Name two applications for power electronic capacitors? Polypropylene Zinc Room AC, Unitary AC, Fans, Compressors, Oxygen gen, LVPF UPS (Harmonic Input filter), VSD, Inverter, Ferro resonant, Three phase filter
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