Transformation of Participation in Cultural Activities
Understanding Race, Prejudice, and Cultural Activities Chapter 2 Culture and the Individual: Symbiosis People and cultural communities mutually contribute to the development of the other Scientific Inquiry
Methodologies Early cross-cultural studies compared other cultures with Western cultures and using Western techniques and definitions. These studies of intelligence and based on the writings of Piaget assumed that intelligence and competence could best be observed by providing people with novel situations and measuring their ability to solve problems. Correlations were actually found between demonstrated competence and Western schooling Can we infer that Western schooling makes you more
intelligent? Data Collection thru the Technique of Syllogism Schooling challenges people to accept a premise as truth and base conclusions on the stated facts. In other cultures, truth and fact can only be based on witnessed accounts. To employ hypothetical reasoning is illogical and consequently a violation of the very thing being measured. Could that very reasoning be implicit in certain components of American culture and youth education?
Is there a relation between this reasoning and the challenge that many students employ when they inquire as to the relevance of their learning? Researchers Questioning Assumptions Traditional thinking about individuals and culture relate to the assumption that conclusions are general and all inclusive of the participants Contemporary thinking reflects a view that individual and group distinctions can be
found within cultural expressions Nestling effect Margaret Mead Meads pioneering work through direct observations of people within cultural context offers great insight towards human development within culture What did Mead say when comparing you in the U. S. with youth in other cultures? Progression of Cultures (Define these terms) Prefigurative
Postfigurative Cofigurative Lev Vygotsky Socio cultural perspective which purports that human development (i.e., intellect, language) is a function of the experiences and exchanges which are, in part, derived from ones respective cultural interactions Whitings Psychocultural Model
Focus on the relations between the development of individuals and features of their immediate environments, social partners, and institutional and cultural systems and values Development is a function of a chain of events which start with environmental factors, historical events, and social adaptation Scholars should unpackage the variables they employ to investigate human development
Erie Bronfenbrenners Ecological Model Development is a function of numerous systemic models which collectively contribute to explain ones environmental experiences Microsystem Mesosystem Ecosystem Macrosystem Chronosystem
Theories of Prejudice Frustration-aggression-displacement hypothesis: As people move through life, they do not always get what they need or want and, as a result, experience varying amounts of frustration. Frustration, in turn, creates aggression and hostility, which can be alternately directed at the original cause of frustration, directed inward, or displaced onto a more accessible target. Targets are generally the visible, the vulnerable, and a
source of competition Understanding Racism Institutional Racism When the established social networks covertly or overtly control the allocation of resources to individuals and social groups Cultural Racism The belief that the cultural ways of one group are superior to those of another Racism in the Media
Further Conceptualization Development is a function sociocultural exchanges (most all theorists allude to this) Can we infer that misdevelopment is, in part, a function of the deprivations of our social institutions? Parent/child interactions Child rearing practices Communication
Environmental safety and exploration Family and Peer interactions Perhaps our sociocultural experiences must provide us with certain experiences which promote the development of certain skills that enable us to be contributing members to society
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