Translation Tutorial - d2ct263enury6r.cloudfront.net

Translation Tutorial - d2ct263enury6r.cloudfront.net

Translation Tutorial Start from the beginning Transcription review The Genetic Code Transfer RNA Performing the Process Review Questions Place your keyboard aside. Only use the mouse. Translation ribosome ribosome ribosome Translation takes place at the ribosome and its the process of the ribosomes creating proteins from smaller amino acids. How did we get to the ribosome? Lets review. next BACK Transcription Review CELL NUCEUS ribosome A process called transcription starts in the nucleus, where an enzyme called RNA polymerase splits the DNA molecule. next

NEXT BACK Transcription Review CELL NUCEUS AUG CCA UAU GGC UAA GCA ribosome NEXT A process called transcription starts in the nucleus, where an enzyme called RNA polymerase splits the DNA molecule. Next, free floating mRNA nucleotides bond to the open DNA molecule. next Once finished, the mRNA breaks away and exits the nucleus. The mRNA will then join a ribosome. Now, the process of translation will begin. next BACK Translation Process ribosome The ribosome will read 3 mRNA nucleotides at a time. The 3 mRNA nucleotides are called a codon. Each codon will match for the delivery of a specific amino acid. Remember that amino acids link together to create a single Click to see the codons protein.

It took scientists many years of experimentation to learn which codon creates which amino acid. next BACK Find AUG This code calls for the delivery of the amino acid called methionine. Give it a click. The Genetic Code This table is the same for almost every organism on Earth. In the chart above, click on the AUG codon. BACK AUG codon Find CCA This code calls for the delivery of the amino acid called proline. Give it a click. Correct! Whenever an AUG codon is read by the ribosome, the amino acid called METHIONINE will be delivered to the ribosome. Notice how the chart says start codon below methionine? This also means that the codon AUG will activate the ribosome to start the process of making a protein. Click on the CCA codon. BACK CCA codon

Find the Stop Codons These codes tells the ribosome to stop making a protein. Give one a click. Correct! Whenever a CCA codon is read by the ribosome, the amino acid called PROLINE will be delivered to the ribosome. This process will continue until a Stop codon is read by the ribosome. This is how the ribosome knows that a protein is finished. Click on any of the STOP CODONS. BACK Transfer RNA Correct! Stop codons tell the ribosome to stop making a protein. So whoor whatis delivering these amino acids? In the cytoplasm, there are countless amino acids and other molecules called transfer RNA (tRNA). tRNA will pick up the proper amino acid and deliver it to the ribosome. Amino Acid serine next next

Amino acid proline next next Amino Acid methionine BACK Watching the Process The mRNA enters the ribosome. The ribosome will begin to read the mRNA one codon at a time. Click on the amino acid that will be 1st delivered to the ribosome? Hint: Examine the Genetic Code chart on your handout to find the 1st codon. Now that methionine is delivered, tRNA drops off methionine and the ribosome moves to the next codon. next choices phenylalanine serine histidine Glutamic acid leucine proline glutamine

cysteine isoleucine threonine asparagine tryptophan methionine alanine lysine arginine valine tyrosine Aspartic acid glycine Stop codon Amino acid methionine 1st codon ribosome Examine the chart on your

handout. Find the AUG code. AUG = methionine BACK Watching the Process The mRNA enters the ribosome. The ribosome will begin to read the mRNA one codon at a time. Click on the amino acid that will be 1st delivered to the ribosome? Hint: Examine the Genetic Code chart on your handout to find the 1st codon. Now that methionine is delivered, tRNA drops off methionine and the ribosome moves to the next codon. next choices phenylalanine serine histidine Glutamic acid leucine proline glutamine cysteine isoleucine threonine

asparagine tryptophan methionine alanine lysine arginine valine tyrosine Aspartic acid glycine Stop codon Amino acid methionine ribosome BACK Watching the Process The mRNA enters the ribosome. The ribosome will begin to read the mRNA one codon at a time. Click on the amino acid that will be 1st delivered to the ribosome? Hint: Examine the Genetic Code chart on your handout to find the 1st codon. Now that methionine is delivered, tRNA drops off methionine and the ribosome moves to the next codon.

Click on the next amino acid to be delivered. choices phenylalanine serine histidine Glutamic acid leucine proline glutamine cysteine isoleucine threonine asparagine tryptophan methionine alanine lysine arginine

valine tyrosine Aspartic acid glycine Stop codon Amino acid methionine 2nd codon ribosome Examine the chart on your handout. Find the CCA code. CCA = proline BACK Watching the Process Correct! CCA is the codon for the amino acid proline. Transfer RNA will deliver proline to the ribosome. next Again, tRNA will drop off the amino acid and exit. The ribosome will move to the next codon. next choices phenylalanine

serine histidine Glutamic acid leucine proline glutamine cysteine isoleucine threonine asparagine tryptophan methionine alanine lysine arginine valine tyrosine Aspartic acid

glycine Stop codon Amino Acid proline Amino acid methionine ribosome BACK Watching the Process Correct! CCA is the codon for the amino acid proline. Transfer RNA will deliver proline to the ribosome. Again, tRNA will drop off the amino acid and exit. The ribosome will move to the next codon. next choices phenylalanine serine histidine Glutamic acid leucine proline glutamine

cysteine isoleucine threonine asparagine tryptophan methionine alanine lysine arginine valine tyrosine Aspartic acid glycine Stop codon Amino Acid proline Amino acid methionine ribosome BACK

Watching the Process Click on the amino acid which will be the 3rd delivered to the ribosome. Once again, the tRNA exits and the ribosome moves down a notch. next choices phenylalanine serine histidine Glutamic acid leucine proline glutamine cysteine isoleucine threonine asparagine tryptophan methionine alanine

lysine arginine valine tyrosine Aspartic acid glycine Stop codon Amino Acid tyrosine Amino acidAmino Acid methionine proline ribosome Examine the chart on your handout. Find the UAU code. UAU = tyrosine BACK Watching the Process Click on the amino acid which will the 3rd delivered to the ribosome. Once again, the tRNA exits and the ribosome moves down a notch. Click on the amino acid that will be 4th delivered. Examine the chart on your handout. Find the GGC code. GGC = glycine

choices phenylalanine serine histidine Glutamic acid leucine proline glutamine cysteine isoleucine threonine asparagine tryptophan methionine alanine lysine arginine valine

tyrosine Aspartic acid glycine Stop codon Amino Acid tyrosine Amino acidAmino Acid methionine proline ribosome BACK Watching the Process Yep GGC is the codon for the amino acid GLYCINE. Transfer RNA will deliver glycine to the ribosome. Now next what happens? choices DNA helix splits This already happened. mRNA reads the DNA tRNA exits This already happened.

phenylalanine serine histidine Glutamic acid leucine proline glutamine cysteine isoleucine threonine asparagine tryptophan methionine alanine lysine arginine valine tyrosine

Aspartic acid glycine Stop codon Amino Acid glycine Amino acidAmino Acid Amino Acid methionine proline tyrosine ribosome BACK Watching the Process You got it! Examine the next codon and click the proper choice from the table below. choices phenylalanine serine histidine Glutamic acid leucine proline glutamine

cysteine isoleucine threonine asparagine tryptophan methionine alanine lysine arginine valine tyrosine Aspartic acid glycine Stop codon Amino Acid glycine Amino acidAmino Acid Amino Acid methionine proline tyrosine ribosome

Examine the chart on your handout. Find the UAA code. UAA = stop codon BACK Watching the Process STOP! This protein is finished. The ribosome and mRNA will break apart. How many amino acids long is this finished protein? One Two Three Just count em up. Methionine, proline, tyrosine, glycine Just count em up. Methionine, proline, tyrosine, glycine Just count em up. Methionine, proline, tyrosine, glycine Four Five choices phenylalanine serine histidine Glutamic acid leucine

proline glutamine cysteine isoleucine threonine asparagine tryptophan methionine alanine lysine arginine valine tyrosine Aspartic acid glycine Stop codon Just count em up. Methionine, proline, tyrosine, glycine Amino acidAmino Acid

Amino AcidAmino Acid methionine proline glycine tyrosine ribosome BACK Amino acidAmino Acid Amino AcidAmino Acid methionine proline glycine tyrosine 1 2 3 4 This protein is only 4 amino acids in length. In reality, they are often thousands of amino acids in size. This finished protein will now by used by the cell or exported by which organelle of the cell? Creates ATP molecules mitochondria Golgi body Transports ribosomes around the cell Rough ER Chloroplast

Performs photosynthesis to make sugar BACK Final Review Good memory. Review #1: Which process creates the mRNA that is read by the ribosome? Replication This process creates more DNA Transcription Translation This process creates proteins BACK Final Review Correct! Review #2: What does tRNA deliver to the ribosome? mRNA mRNA contains the codes needed to make a protein

DNA Amino acids DNA holds the information to make a protein Proteins Proteins are the final product. What are their smaller parts called? BACK Final Review Correct! Review #3: Which molecule directly determines which amino acid transfer RNA delivers to the ribosome? Messenger RNA This molecule indirectly holds the code to make an amino acid DNA RNA Polymerase This enzyme splits DNA during transcription

The Nucleus The nucleus only stores the DNA BACK Final Review Correct! Review #4: Where does the process of translation take place? Inside the nucleus This is where transcription happens Inside the Golgi body This is where proteins go before they are exported from the cell At the ribosome Inside the vacuole The vacuole holds food and water

BACK Final Review Correct! Review #5: If the DNA code was TTC-AAT-GGC, perform transcription to determine the mRNA code. AAG-TTA-CCG TTC-AAT-GGC AAG-UUA-CCG UUG-TTA-UCG DNA A with RNA U DNA T with RNA A DNA C with RNA G DNA G with RNA C DNA A with RNA U DNA T with RNA A DNA C with RNA G DNA G with RNA C DNA A with RNA U DNA T with RNA A DNA C with RNA G DNA G with RNA C BACK Final Review Correct! Review #6: If the mRNA code is AAG-UUA-CCG, which three amino acids are going to be delivered to the ribosome? LYSINE CYSTEINE - ASPARAGINE LEUCINE - PROLINE - VALINE

LYSINE LEUCINE - PROLINE SERINE METHIONINE - GLUTAMIC ACID Correct! BACK I hope this tutorial was helpful. Turn in your handout. Feel free to start over if you would like to do some review. AAG -UUA-CCG I will help you get started. The first codon is AAG. Find AAG on the mRNA codon chart. AAG codes for lysine. This is the amino acid that tRNA will deliver. return

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Motivation - LPS

    Motivation - LPS

    Nature vs. Nurture Arousal Theory Some motivated behaviors can be explained by the want to be aroused. We are motivated and driven by curiosity, we are fascinated by novel or new things. Arousal Theory = Motivation aims not to eliminate...
  • LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane

    LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane

    For the Cell Biology Video An Idealized Beta Pleated Sheet Cartoon, go to Animation and Video Files. ... These interactions between R groups include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals interactions ... by hydrogen bonding. Base...
  • MCIHospitalBoards

    MCIHospitalBoards

    Triage Triage: Sorting of Patients Primary and Secondary Triage Types of Triage Triage Categories Disaster Triage Systems Disaster Triage Systems The "START" System of Triage The "START" System of Triage PowerPoint Presentation The "START" System of Triage Triage Protocol (START)...
  • L'amour, l'art, la poésie, plus forts que la mort

    L'amour, l'art, la poésie, plus forts que la mort

    Orphée fut le poète et le joueur de lyre (ou de cithare, celle-ci étant plus élaborée que la lyre) le plus célèbre de l'Antiquité. Par sa musique, non seulement il attendrissait les bêtes féroces mais il charmait aussi les arbres...
  • Choosing a course

    Choosing a course

    CF + UI - You have firmly accepted a conditional offer and accepted an unconditional offer as an insurance Getting started Manchester Brighton UWE Birmingham Sussex Durham High coursework component Erasmus opportunity Climate change specialism in years 2 & 3...
  • Bellwork - Dr Collings' Science Classes

    Bellwork - Dr Collings' Science Classes

    What is the difference between an invertebrate and a chordate - what 4 characteristics do chordates require. ... Essentially each phylum's body plan can be viewed as an evolutionary experiment. Writing exercise.
  • ISB/JBS Microsoft Student Exchange Programme

    ISB/JBS Microsoft Student Exchange Programme

    Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship as key drivers of the Cambridge Technopole Dr Shailendra Vyakarnam Self Introduction Director of Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning Vision - To spread the spirit of Enterprise Courses in the "why and how to" of enterprise largely for...
  • Urban Infrastructure and Adaptation

    Urban Infrastructure and Adaptation

    City response to climate change impacts and their endogenous turmoil is a highly turbulent layer where local, bottom-up reactive and pro-active adaptation will churn and interact with global climate change. At the edge of this chaos, we hypothesize, is an...