Triumph of Parliament in England 1 WOR L D H IS TORY A N D G E OGR A P H Y Tudor Dynasty 2 Tudors ruled England from 1485-1603: 118 years! They widely recognized the value of Parliament When Henry VII cut ties with the Catholic Church, Parliament placed him as the head of the Church of England The king had to seek approval from Parliament to levy taxes and to get money to
use for wars Though Henry had to consult Parliament, it usually voted as his agents instructed; The Stuarts 3 The Tudor reign ended in 1603 when Elizabeth I died without an heir. Her cousin, a Stuart came into power. The Stuarts were not as popular as the Tudors nor as effective in dealing with Parliament. The Stuarts wanted to
be absolute rulers! When the king wants absolute power 4 Stuarts against Parliament James I: First Stuart in power Clashed with Parliament about divine right,
money, and foreign policy When Parliament wanted to discuss foreign policy over voting funds, he dissolved Parliament and collected his own taxes Leaders in the House of Commons opposed his claim to absolute power James also clashed with Puritans who wanted to remove Catholic practices from Church of England Charles I 5 Acted like dad (James I), behaved like an absolute ruler Summoned Parliament to raise taxes in 1628 Parliament forced him to sign the Petition of
Right, which prohibited the king from raising taxes without consent of Parliament. Charles signed it but then dissolved Parliament and ignored the Petition for 11 years. During these 11 years, he created bitter enemies in England Puritans dont like Charles 6 Archbishop William Laud, Charless appointee, tried to force
clergy to follow strictly the Anglican laws of the Church of England. He imprisoned or dismissed those who resisted. Not a great way to make friends there, Charles! The Long Parliament 7 The Long Parliament 1640-1653 Summoned in 1640 by Charles to get money to fight a religious war against Calvinists in Scotland.
When it met, Parliament launched its own revolt. It tried and executed Charless chief ministers, including Laud. It then declared that Parliament could no longer be dissolved without its permission. THIS CAUSES A CIVIL WAR IN ENGLAND! English Civil War 8
1642-1649 (seven years) Supporters of Charles were called Cavaliers Wealthy nobles with military experience Supporters of Parliament were called Roundheads Country gentry, town-dwellers, Puritan clergy Led by Oliver Cromwell In 1649, the Roundheads capture, try, and then execute Charles I. The first time a European king was executed by its own people
For the next ten years, England had no king. It was ruled by the House of Commons under a republic known as The Commonwealth Charles II 9 Supporters of Charles II rose up and retook the throne in 1660. Charles II was young and a very popular leader He reopened theaters and taverns that were closed under the Commonwealth He accepted the Petition
of Right that Charles I had signed but ignored. The Glorious Revolution 10 Charless brother James II became king in 1685 and was not liked. He wanted to restore the Catholic Church in England. This caused Parliament to invited Jamess protestant daughter, Mary, and her Dutch Protestant husband, William III to become rulers of England. When their army arrived in England in 1688, James II fled the county and the two took power. William and Mary become King and Queen in
1688 Limits on Royal Power 11 The Bill of Rights ensured the superiority of Parliament over the monarch It required the king to summon Parliament regularly and gave the House of Commons the Power of the Purse A king/queen could no longer interfere in the meeting
of Parliament or suspend laws It also barred any Catholic from being king of England England became a Limited Monarchy: A government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarchs power. What is the difference between an Absolute Monarchy and a Limited Monarchy? 12 Take a few minutes minutes and answer this question.
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