Tudor England

Tudor England


RELIGION AND DIVISION SCOTTISH PROBLEM SOCIETY VALUES AND BELIEFS TRADE The debate that exists about Elizabeth often derives from the focus that is used. Just as in film the close up lens ( like biography) can be misleading. When a wider lens is used ( court and country) we see a more dynamic interplay of

forces Regional Church records, Trade contracts, foreign embassy reports Who was Thomas Cromwell A modern form of government was based on a bureaucracy staffed by capable people who worked to a series of rules and procedures. Departments

were created that dealt with the specifics associated with that department and only those specifics. Cromwell believed that if this system ran well, it would end the dominance of any one person, as no single person would be able to control a properly run bureaucracy that was governed by procedures and rules. Elton believed that Thomas Cromwell introduced a modern form of government based on the above

CROMWELLS REFORMS Cromwell was credited with two reforms of major importance. Whereas in the past, individuals who were never systematically audited and bound by procedures had received the kings income, Cromwell introduced a bureaucratic model. In the Thomas Cromwell model, departments received money from pre-specified sources there was meant to be no overlapping and paid out money for reasons that had to be sanctioned first The second major reform introduced by Cromwell was the Privy Council. Previous to this, a council had existed that was made up of up to 100 men to advise the king. However, very few of them ever attended and the system usually ended up with one strong man dominating, such as Wolsey. The Privy Council was made up of

twenty men who were specifically chosen to have responsibility for the day-to-day running of government IMPORTANCE OF SECURED SUCCESSION A group of representatives called Parliament was divided into two sections. The House of Lords or the Upper House consisted of bishops and aristocrats. The House of Commons or the Lower House consisted of common people Elections only occurred for the members of the House

of Commons. These members were supported by the important local people from their locale. The members of the House of Commons only had voting power if they were male and received a certain annual income. The queen decided when Parliament would be called to session. Queen Elizabeth I only called Parliament to session 10 times during her reign. The Two Houses were linked by Patronage, kinship, friendship, royal service and professional and economic association In contrast to the absolute monarchies of Spain and France, the English monarchy was limited by

Parliament; following a civil war, Parliament became even more powerful. The main function of Parliament at this time in history was to deal with financial matters such as taxation and granting the queen money. The monarch paid for daily administration with ordinary revenues from customs, feudal dues and sales of land. Parliament covered extraordinary expenditures such as war with taxation.

If taxation did not supply enough funds for military expenditures, more land was sold along with illegal scheming. Parliament was also used for passing laws. During Queen Elizabeths reign, 438 public and private laws were passed LIFE AT COURT .Elizabethan dress was gorgeous and elaborate, mirroring the prosperity and energy of the age. Queen Elizabeth herself provided an extravagant fashion

model--an inventory of her clothing in 1600 included almost 300 gowns and several hundred other costumes, in addition to state apparel. Towards the end of her reign, English dress became increasingly exaggerated, following the eccentric tastes of the aging queen PATRONAGE This was the system where the material and political interests of the governing class were bound to the monarch it linked their interests to the fate of the government. It was an important link. Leading patrons would have direct contact with the monarch and if you were in their faction (i.e., you were one of their clients) you would have indirect contact with the

monarch. The country got governed on the cheap! Remember the crown was very poor, so most of the government jobs paid nothing. Here are some examples of patronage: The grant of an honour e.g., Knighthoods You could be appointed to a political position, e.g., JP, Speaker of Party, Secretary of State, any job from the privy council Pensions - given by the monarch, never usually that significant Economic benefits, e.g., the Earl of Essex was given a monopoly on sweet wines, he could now license the hotels, taverns and pubs and charge a fee for himself Favourable leases (leases of Crown land on favourable terms). The Duke of Norfolk was a privy councillor and the head of a very large faction. Faction: A faction was a group of people who attached themselves to a person who could give out patronage A patron.

FACTION in Tudor England was crucial in Tudor Politics. Throughout history faction is the form politics takes when its focus is the will of one man. Factions can be compared to the political parties of today, however ties in Tudor faction were organic, not idealogical. They emerged from the realities of family relationships (good and bad), friendship & antagonism, locality, sponsorship, upbringing. Some groupings and antagonisms lasted for years, yet because the ultimate concern was to promote objectives in and through individuals, calculations could alter as circumstances changed. Anne Boleyns fall was a consequence of precisely such a recalculation among some of her supporters. However, a Monarch should be able to exploit competition for his favour on the "divide & rule" principle (something Elizabeth I would make into an art form).

Henry was always in authority; he was nobody's fool; at times he did lead and he could not be taken for granted. But he was also significantly dependant on those around him. England had broken with Rome in the reign of Henry V111 through the divorce issue. However it was not a simple question of divorce but England establishing its own authority and identity , separate from Rome. Mary 1 had reestablished Catholicism and burned many protestant martyrs. Elizabeths problem was to balance not only internal divisions but foreign alliances. Weaving the

marriage, religion and foreign policy tapestry EUROPE IN TH THE 16 CENTURY Archduke Charles of Austria Henry Duke of

Anjou Francois Duke of Anjou Phillip 11 of Spain had been married to Mary 1. On her death, he offered himself as potential husband for Elizabeth. As Spain was devoutly Catholic , Elizabeth was forced to tread warily, so not to offend her Protestant people The Netherlands was centre of trade for most of Europe. The Antwerp cloth trade was vital for Elizabeth to

maintain. The threat of Spains invasion of the Netherlands forced Elizabeth to temporarily seek an alliance with France Mary Queen of Scots had been married to the King of France . On his death she had returned to Scotland. She was next in line to the throne of England and remained a problem for Elizabeth throughout her life.. At the time of Elizabeths accession Scotland was under French rule France was Englands traditional enemy and had lost the imporfant port of Calais to France. This was confirmed by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559

Who was Martin Luther? He could read Latin, Greek and Hebrew. Whilst comparing the Latin Catholic Bible with the original Greek & Hebrew he found that certain parts were incorrectly translated. Luther hung his research on the local Church door in Wittenburg in 1517.

He disagreed with the Pope and began the protestant religion. What did Martin Luther Believe? The Church is wrong to sell indulgencies which buy time out of Purgatory. Read the Bible in your own language and not Latin. Its wrong to make an image of God. The Church is too rich.

What other changes took place in Protestant Churches? The Act of Supremacy Henry VIII had everybody who refused to accept him as head of the Church of England executed for treason. These monks are being hung, drawn and quartered Who were the

Puritans? A Puritan of 16th and 17th-century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of worship and doctrine as well as personal and group piety Puritans felt that the English Reformation had not gone far enough, and that the Church of England was tolerant of practices which they associated with the Catholic Church The term "Puritan" was not coined until

the 1560s, when it appears as a term of abuse for those who proposed further reforms than those adopted by the Reformed Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. SCOTTISH PROBLEM Independent (since 1314) and resentful Scotland Mary Queen of Scots John Knoxs religious movement

Husband, French king, dies and she returns to Scotland Not well liked in Scotland (exiled Knox and others) Married Darnley and had a son and then Darnley killed Mary forced to abdicate (refuge in England) James VI of Scotland CHAIN OF BEING

JOHN KNOX Knoxs First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women was a sensational diatribe that castigated womens rule. To promote a woman to bear rule, superiority, dominion or empire above any realm, nation or city is repugnant to nature, contumely to God, a thing most contrarious to His revealed will and approved order, and finally it is the subversion of good order, of all equity

and justice.70 And again, How abominable before God is the empire or rule of a wicked woman, yea, of a traiteresse and bastard. ORDER BETWEEN THE SEXES The concept of equality between the sexes would have seemed very foreign to most in Shakespeare's day: Adam was created first, and Eve from his

body; she was created specifically to give him comfort, and was to be subordinate to him, to lesser status. A dominant woman was unnatural, a symptom of disorder. obey him and to accept her The sense of order which governed Elizabethan society also governed the type of dress one could wear. "Sumptuary" laws* outlined

the degree of luxury allowed each social class*, although a 1580 statute modified the law to allow some luxury to those who could afford it A person below the rank of a knight's eldest son, for example, was not allowed to wear satin, damask or taffeta WHAT DID PEOPLE BELIEVE?

The Tudor Concept of Marriage fitted into the Divine order of things. God ruled the universe, the King Ruled the Country and a husband ruled his family. Like subjects to a King a wife was duty bound to obey her husband. For women even Queens this meant total subjection and domination by her husband What did

people believe? Both Catholics and Protestants believed that only members of their own religion would go to heaven. Each tried to convince the other to change religion in order to save their souls from Hell. Hell was a place of everlasting torture. Members of each faith believed that they could save peoples souls by getting them to change religion through torture.

The population of Tudor England doubled between the reigns of Henry VII and Elizabeth I. Along with this came unemployment and rapid price inflation. During the 1530s, Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries resulted in, among other things, much Church land being put on the market, thousands of ex-monks were released into society and the end of career opportunities for well-off women who once lived in nunneries. In addition, the provision of monastic charity and welfare for the poor ceased to exist. The poor in the countryside suffered as a result of what was known as enclosure. Landlords had traditionally let the poor graze their animals on what was common land. In Tudor times, landlords realised that this land could be better used and they got the poor to leave their land and took away this traditional right. With nothing to do in the countryside, many poor drifted to towns and cities to look for work. Also landlords were moving away from growing crops like corn and turning to sheep

farming as a growing population required more clothes and good money could be made from farming sheep. As there were more people than jobs available in the countryside, this simply caused more problems for the towns and cities as people went from the countryside to the towns looking for work. For the poor in either the countryside or in towns and cities, life remained hard, unpleasant and for many, short in terms of years alive. There were terrible problems of poverty facing the Tudor government. As rents and food prices rose in the countryside, many villagers were forced to leave their homes and come to the towns to look for work. However, they often could not find employment and ended up begging in the streets. Unlike today, there was no Welfare State to help out those who had fallen on hard times. TUDOR TRADE

Tudor England was an agricultural society. Most of the population lived in small villages and made their living from farming. Having said that towns grew larger and more important. During the 16th century trade and industry grew rapidly and England became a more and more commercial country. Mining of coal, tin and lead flourished. So did the iron industry. During this period England became richer and richer. However there were winners and losers in Tudor times. Upper class and middle class Tudors saw a big rise in their standard of living. As England grew more and more

prosperous the homes of the well off became more and more comfortable. However the lowest section of society, the wage labourers, became worse off. In the 14th century a large part of the population died of plague. As a result there was a shortage of labour so wages went up. However in the 16th century the population recovered so real earnings fell. In the 15th century the population of England may have been around 2 1/2 million. By 1525 it had risen to around 3 million and by 1600 it was about 4 million. During the 16th century there was inflation, especially in the mid-century, and prices rose steeply. Wages rose too but less than prices so real earnings fell. They reached their lowest point in 1597. (The years 1594-97 were ones of famine. In Cumbria, the poorest and most isolated part of England, people starved to death). THE

NETHERLANDS From 1496, the English Company of Merchant Adventurers get trading privileges at Antwerp. Goods are paid for with English woollen cloth, and traders bring back fancy goods and metal wear as well as oriental spices and silks. Antwerp remains the most important European port

until about 1560.

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