Two 'fer One: Strategies for Gaining Two Years' Reading ...
The Key for Two Years Reading Growth for One Year of Instruction: Assessment Presented by: Quality Quinn For more information www.qualityquinn.com Click on presentations Find your state on the map
Click! Process for Leadership Challenge the process search for opportunities change status quo Inspiring a shared vision imagine the ideal situation Enabling others to act foster cooperation
modeling the way Encouraging the heart to begin the journey The Professional Development Focus Curriculum-Implementation-Data Analyses
Theory Modeling and demonstration Low-risk feedback loops Modification Evaluation of curriculum impact State of the Nation Annual testing in the US Texas: the tail that wags the dog The Real Agenda: The STEMs
Science,Technology,Engineering,Mathematics Social Studies Recent Headlines and Quotes More than half of California 9th Graders Flunk Exit Exam, Education Week It will take at least ten years to reach proficiency for all learnersNCLB adequate yearly progress NCLB Reading is the New Requisite for Math Education Week
How we can help? Prepare for early success Prevent learners from falling behind Intervene for below level learners Challenge above grade level learners The Model Rigorous state Standards that raise expectations Curriculum and benchmarks aligned to state standards Quality, on-going professional development for teachers who support and teach reading
Resources to support new instructional strategies and classroom management strategies Informal classroom diagnostic assessment for reading and growth Maximizing Federal Dollars (Title 1) to buy more TIME STATE TEST ALIGNED to STANDARDS The 3 BIG Instructional Strategies Lesson Design Content alignment: vertical and horizontal teaming Assessment driving instruction
Classroom Management Instruction in terms of minutes Collaboration Whole class, small group, think-pair-share, indep. Literacy-a new expectation for ALL learners Interactive learning What the brain likes Reading for MATH The Challenge
37% of all 8th graders scored below Basic on the NAEP After third grade, the achievement gap with minority, second language, and low-income learners widens substantially The prospect of exit exams yields an increase in drop-outs The goal of the teacher is to create an environment that allows every reader to move as quickly as possible to grade level, content area reading
without selling-out and just attempting to teach to the test. What immediate steps will ensure growth were looking for growth! You Cant Tutor What Hasnt Been Taught
You cant tutor what hasnt been taught You cant tutor what hasnt been taught You cant tutor what hasnt been taught You cant tutor what hasnt been taught You cant tutor what hasnt been taught You cant tutor what hasnt been taught You cant tutor what hasnt been taught Three Flavors of Assessment
Formal = External Reporting Scorekeeping Broad data for identifying specific populations Program evaluation and budget indicators Informal Assessment =Internal Reporting Intervention: Do something differently, immediately (STOP Spray and Pray!) Progress monitoring over time for individual students Data used to plan next move for instruction
Getting a Grade =Comfort the troubled, trouble the comfortable Public relations A,B,C,D,F: Coin of the realm The Challenge After third grade, the achievement gap with minority, second language, and low-income learners widens substantially Incomplete beginning reading instruction Serious vocabulary deficit Very limited knowledge of text structure
Text Structures Language Arts Language Arts Whose woods these are I think I know: his house is in the village, though. He will not mind me stopping here to watch his woods fill up with snow. My little horse must think it queer to stop without a farmhouse near. He gives his harness bells a shake, to ask if there is some mistake.The only other sounds the
sweep of easy wind and downy flake. The woods are lovely dark and deep,but I have promises to keep and miles to go before I sleep. And miles to go before I sleep. Pronouns, demonstrative adjectives Science Science The Hall-Heroult process is essentially the electrolytic decomposition of purified bauxite. In a cell made of iron, a solution of Al2O3 in molten cryolite, Na3AlF6,
conducts the current. Procedural words, ordinals, first, then, next, etc. Social Studies 8 TAKS Question Compare the funding of Jeffersons Lewis and Clark expedition and that of Ferdinand and Isabella funding for
Columbus voyage to the New World. Social Studies/History Although The Confederacy represented the Southern states, its army attacked Gettysburg from the North. The Confederate Generals, having spent a tough winter and spring in the Shenandoah Valley, were desperate for supplies, particularly shoes. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, a farming and shoe manufacturing community would hopefully provide the much needed supplies. Subordinating conjunctions: since, while, because,
although, yet, if, as if, however, etc. Math Math The architect and contractor were conferring over the blueprints of the new ten story parking garage. It needed to be ten floors and have space for compact cars. Each floor required twenty-two I beams, plus one additional beam for each additional floor after the first. Determine
the number of I beams and show a possible structural configuration. Math Research Embed in real world:make it engaging, generating more questions Create a language rich classroom Justifying, generalizations, highly verbal, highly visual students Draw pictures, create mental images, foster visualization
Build from charts, graphs & tables- also, the misinterpretation of data Dont leave out measurement The three most important words for the struggling reader: VOCABULARY VOCABULARY VOCABULARY Words-words-words-words-words-words-words-wordswords-words-words-words-words-words-words-wordswords-words-words-words-you get it!!!!
Registers of Language R. Payne Frozen: Language that is always the same Formal: Standard sentence syntax of work and school. Consultative: Formal register when used with conversation. Discourse patterns slightly less formal. Casual: Language between friends: 400-800 word vocabulary. Non-specific word-choice; nonverbal assists determine meaning. Sentence syntax often incomplete.
Intimate: Language between lovers or twins. The language of sexual harassment. Vocabulary Instruction Concept vocabulary Big idea words: attrition, populism, hypothesis Context vocabulary Words that have multiple meanings: economy, mine, elements, book, state, set, case Vocabulary structure
Words with recognizable Latin cognates: migratory, revolt, spectator Jim Cummins-Word Harvesting What Words to Teach Bringing Words to LifeROBUST Vocabulary Instruction Isabel Beck ,Nancy MacKowen First tier words Words that you wish students knew, hope they can get, but you dont have time to teach.
Second tier words High utility words that they need to know in your class, and everyone elses. Third tier words Extremely specific words in your content area that require considered and deliberate and in depth instruction
Lets Demystify Reading Three Muscles: Early Language Experience Phonemic awareness and concept development Vocabulary, academic language and alphabetic principle Decoding muscle Three ways of getting meaning off the page (1)phonicsprimary decoding strategy (2)semantics and vocabulary (3) syntax and structure
Fluency muscle Reads a lot of words fast w/ comprehension* Class libraries of leveled or decodable text Every day, every reader reading at a level of success of self-selected quality literature News Flash!!!!! 26 letters and 44 sounds 17 reliable letters, (letters that always sound the same) q,w,,t,p,d,f,h,j,k,l,z,x,v,n,m,b, 4 that are switch hitters... s,g,c&r
3 that are pests ...a,o,u 3 that will make you CRAZY!!!!i,e,y Double vowels: oa, oo, ee, ea, oi, ou, au Blends: ch, sh, wh, st,str, pl, sl, fl, gl, cl, bl, kl,cr,scr, Vocabulary and Phonics
ap-pal-ling intro-spec-tion el-e-ments re-a-li-ty in-hu-man-i-ty col-lab-o-ra-tion hur-dle re-con-struc-tion mine Teaching Word Attack (phonics) in Science
Con-ser-va-tion bun-dle Ac-cel-er-a-tion state Force
base Mass mol-e-cule Grav-i-ta-tion-al force gas-e-ous Ter-min-al vel-o-city Grav-i-ta-tion-al at-trac-tion Mo-men-tum anthropologically An-thro-po-log-i-cal-ly australopithecine
Aus-tra-lo-pith-e-cine Definition of Comprehension Comprehension is defined as: intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between the text and the reader (Harris & Hodges,1995) STRATEGIES Clarifying Comparing and contrasting
Connecting to prior experiences Inferencing (including generalizing and drawing conclusions) Predicting Questioning the text Recognizing the authors purpose Seeing causal relationships
Summarizing visualizing an excerpt Draped for the formal unveiling May 31 with only an insouciant topknot and Horton The Elephants trunk peeking out the sculptures frolic on the wide green linking the city library and its four museums that gave wing to the authors imagination.--
Limited word study skills and spelling No text available at level of success No adults modeling reading No history of reading success Five Keys to No Child Left Behind Vertical team study of pre-k-4 reading curriculum with evidence of student work Phonemic Awareness &Phonics training for pre-k through 5rd grade teachers Vocabulary instruction training geared more
toward word harvest Ready availability of compelling leveled text with conditional assessment Classroom management strategies that provide intensity and focus for below level readers Process for Leadership Challenge the process search for opportunities change status quo Inspiring a shared vision
imagine the ideal situation Enabling others to act foster cooperation modeling the way Encouraging the heart to begin the journey The Old Syllable-the part of a word controlled by a vowel- In English, there are 6 types Syllable that is a single letter, single vowel, as in a-bout,
i-dent-i-fy, e-lec-tric, a-vail-a-ble Syllable ending in vowel, as in cru-el-ty, Syllable ending in a consonant, as in al-co-hol, con-su-mer, athlete Syllable ending in -tion-sion, as in in-tro-duc-tion
Syllable ending in -le, as in tin-gle, pic-kle, bi-cy-cle Syllable ending with a vowel, consonant, silent e, as in shame, dime, kite, mon-o-tone, val-en-tine O-le Que-so Cam-e-ro-nes Teaching Comprehension Directly Monitor the use of the strategy Offer less coaching as less is called for Ask what strategy they are using & why,
therefore bringing the strategy to the students awareness Give students continued opportunity to observe more modeling Provide multiple and ongoing opportunities for students to interact w/other using a variety of text How do I teach those strategies? Decide which strategy you want to model and which text to use Tell your students which strategy you are going to practice while you read
Read the passage to the students modeling the strategy you are using..think aloud During real reading, give your students multiple chances to practice Continue modeling as the genre or text structure changes Give students a chance to practice without your coaching or support Recent Headlines and Quotes More than half of California 9th Graders Flunk
Exit Exam, Education Week It will take at least ten years to reach proficiency for all learnersNCLB adequate yearly progress President Bush Still Leaving Children Behind Krista Kafta, Heritage Foundation Reading is the New Requisite for Math Education Week Grammar IS Syntax The power the lowly preposition The power of the subordinating
conjunction Persuasive State opinion
Support with clear evidence or examples Personalize Appeal to the emotions Graphic imagery Structured argument All to action Phoneme Isolation Children recognize individual sounds in a word. Teacher: What is the first sound in van?
Children: The first sound in van is /v/. Phoneme Identity Children recognize the same sounds in different words. Teacher: What sound is the same in fix, fall, and fun? Children: The first sound, /f/, is the same.
Phoneme Categorization Children recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the odd sound. Teacher: Which word doesnt belong? Bus, bun, rug. Children: Rug does not belong. It doesnt begin with /b/. Phoneme Blending Children listen to a sequence of separately spoken
phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to form a word. Teacher: What word is /b/ /i/ /g/? Children: /b/ /i/ /g/ is big. Teacher: Now lets write the sounds in big: /b/ /i/ /g/. (Teacher writes big.) Now were going to read the word big.
Phoneme Segmentation Children break a word into its separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap out or count it. Teacher: How many sounds are in grab? Children: /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. Four sounds. Teacher: Now lets write the sounds in grab: /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. (Teacher writes grab.) Now were going to read the
word grab. Phoneme Deletion Children recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from another word. Teacher: What is smile without the /s/? Children: Smile without the /s/ is mile.
Phoneme Addition Children make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word. Teacher: What word do you have if you add /s/ to the beginning of park? Children: Spark. Phoneme Substitution Children substitute one phoneme for
another to make a new word. Teacher: The word is bug. Change /g/ to /n/. Whats the new word? Children: Bun. What should be done? 1. Dedicated developmental reading testing preparedness program 5th through 8th 2. Continued professional development for ALL
teachers in reading intervention 5-12 3. Initiate on-going professional development in science, social studies, and math reading & writing 4. Integrate a testwiseness curriculum for state testing programs with strong emphasis on the content areas Reader Response
Review the story Select a sentence or phrase that lingers Write down two reasons for selecting that Share your sentence and reasons w/others Come to consensus Be prepared to share to group What is being done?
Mandatory summer school Same thing, but LOUDER Expensive intervention programs with uneven results Teacher training institutions changing reading requirements Testwiseness: An Important Piece of a Comprehensive Intervention Strategy 1. On-going, sustained test readiness and rehearsal, i.e. testwiseness
2. Phonics instruction for those who received hit-or-miss decoding during whole language approach 3. Build fluency with an every day, every child reads at a level of success approach 4. Use regular non-fiction writing events to teach science & soc. studies syntax Five Steps to Two Years Growth for One Year of Instruction Vertical team study of k-8 reading curriculum with evidence of student work
Phonics training for 3rd through 8th grade teachers Vocabulary instruction training geared more toward word harvest Ready availability of compelling leveled text with conditional assessment Classroom management strategies that provide intensity and focus for below level readers The Goal: Show Improvement Growth triggers funding Data is the gatekeeper No improvement: no money
Show enough growth to secure funding What will be considered growth? What you can do in the classroom? Discipline Use the adult voice first, then the parent voice. To avoid arguments with parents and students, use the adult voice. Use discipline interventions as an opportunity for instruction. Use the parent voice to stop behaviors. Use the
parent voice to change behaviors. Useful References Adams, M.J. (2000). Beginning to Read: thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Alexander, K. & Entwisle, D. (1996). Schools and children at risk. In A. Booth & J. Dunn (Eds.). Family-school links: How do they affect educational outcomes? Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Baker, L. (1994). Contexts of emergent literacy: Everyday home experiences of urban pre-kindergarten children. College Park, MD: National Reading Research Center. Baker, L., D. Scher, and K. Mackler. (1997). Home and family
influences on motivations for reading. Educational Psychologist 32(2): 69:82. Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C.E. (1999). Starting out right: A guide to promoting childrens reading success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Baker, L., Allen. J., Schockley, B, Pelligrini, A.D., Galda, L. & Stahl, S. (1996). Connecting school and home: Constructing partnerships to foster reading development in L. Baker, P. Afflerbach & D. Reinking (Eds.), Developing engaged readers in home and school communities, Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 21-41.
Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C.E. (1999). Starting out right: A Guide to promoting childrens reading success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Bus. A.G., M.H. van Ijzendoorn, and A.D. Pellegrini. (1995). Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis
on intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of Educational Research: 65(1): 1-21. Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Jessup, MD: Partnership for Reading. Available: www.nifl.gov. Edwards, P.A. (1995). Empowering low income mothers and fathers to share books with young children. The reading teacher 48: 4888564. Epstein, J.L., Coates, L., Salinas, K.C., Sanders, M.G., & Simmons, B.S. (1997). School, family and community partnerships: Your handbook for action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Gallimore, R., & Goldenberg, C. (1993). Activity settings of early literacy: Home and school factors in childrens emergent literacy. In
E. Forman, N. Minick, & A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning: Sociocultural dynamics in childrens development (pp. 315-335). New York: Oxford University Press. Gentile, L. M., & McMillan, M.M. (1992). Literacy for students at-risk; Developing critical dialogues. Journal of Reading, 35, 636-640. Hart, Betty & Risley, Todd R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Paul H Brookes Pub Co. Lyon, G.R. (1998). Overview of reading and literacy initiatives. Testimony Provided to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of child Health
and Human Development. Moats, L. (1999, June). Teaching Reading is Rocket Science. Wahington, DC: American Federation of Teachers. Available online: http://www.aft.org/edissues/rocketscience.htm National Center for Education Statistics (1998). Characteristics of childrens early care and Education programs: Data from, the 1995 National Household Education Surveys (NCES No. 98-128). National Reading Panel. (1999). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based Assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Washington DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Available: www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubskey.
ODonnell, M.P., & Wood, M. (1992). Becoming a reader: A developmental instruction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Oldfather, P. & Wigfield, A. (1996). Childrens motivations for literacy learning in Developing. In L. Baker, C. Afflorbach & D. Reinking (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. (pp. 89-113, Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Riley, J. (1996). The teaching of reading, London: Paul Chapman. Robbins, C., and L.C. Ehri. (1994). Reading storybooks to kindergarteners helps them learn new vocabulary words. Journal of Educational Psychology 86(1): 54-64. Snow, Catherine E., M. Susan Burns, and Peg Griffin. (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington D.C., National Academy Press. Sonnenschein, S., Brody, G., & Munsterman, K. (1996). The influence
of family beliefs and practices on childrens early reading development, In L. Baker, P. Afflerback & D. Reinking (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. PP. 3-20. U.S. Department of Education. (1999). Start early, finish strong: How to help every child become a reader (America Reads Challenge), Washington, D.C.: author. Available online: http://www.ed.gov.pubs/startearly/
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