Types of Ecosystems PA C K E T # 2 3 CHAPTER #6 Introduction/Review of Ecosystems Complete community of living organisms and the nonliving materials of their surroundings Consists of Biotic components Abiotic components Categories of Ecosystems
Introduction Biome Major ecosystem spread over a wide geographic area and characterized by certain types of flora and fauna. Large terrestrial region characterized by similar climate, soil and living things Terrestrial Biomes Tundra Tundra
Cold, boggy plains of the far north Extremely short growing season Little precipitation Nutrient-poor soil Lichens; mosses;
sedges; dwarf shrubs. Terrestrial Biomes II Taiga Taiga
Evergreen forest of the north Longer growing season Long cold winters and short, cool summers. Little precipitation Yields much lumber and pulpwood Has deciduous trees but conifers dominate Short grasses; low diversity
Terrestrial Biomes III Temperate Rain Forest Temperate rain forest Characterized by cool weather, dense fog, and high precipitation Dominant trees are conifers Yields lumber and pulpwood NW United States Terrestrial Biomes IV Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate deciduous
forest Dense canopy of broad tree leaves Great seasonal variation in temperature and moderate precipitation Being converted to
agriculture in many areas on the world Terrestrial Biomes V Grasslands Grasslands Temperate areas of moderate precipitation Hot summers and cold
winters Most native grasslands have been converted to agriculture and are well suited to raising cereal crops Terrestrial Biomes VI Chaparral Chaparral
Thicket of evergreen shrubs and small trees Dominated by drought resistant shrubs and is adapted to fire Found in California and Western Austrialia Terrestrial Biomes VII Deserts Deserts
Arid ecosystems Dry areas found in temperate (cold deserts) and subtropical and tropical regions (warm deserts) Low precipitation results in sparse vegetation Desert plants exhibit
allelopathy Terrestrial Biomes VIII Savanna Savanna Tropical grassland with scattered trees Tropical rain season and arid dry season
Often converted to rangeland for domesticated animals Perennial grasses, shrubs, sparse trees and diverse large mammals Terrestrial Biomes IX Forests in Tropical Areas Tropical Dry Forests Have both wet and dry
seasons Terrestrial Biomes X Tropical Rain Forests Tropical Rain Forests Characterized by high precipitation and high temperatures Threatened by overpopulation Most diverse biome with many species from all domains Did you know that there is a tropical rain
forest right here in the US? Aquatic Ecosystems/Biomes Aquatic Ecosystems Classified primarily on abiotic factors but also on types of organisms Vary in temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and current Three categories of organisms Plankton
Organisms that live on or in the bottom Freshwater Ecosystems Include flowing-water ecosystems, standingwater ecosystems and wetlands Lakes/ponds Rivers/streams Flowing-water Ecosystems
Rivers & Smaller Streams Rivers are typically deep, slow flowing and have less dissolved oxygen Standing-Water Ecosystems Ponds and Lakes Standing water ecosystems Can be divided into different zones
Zones of Standing-Water Ecosystems Littotal zone Shallow inshore zone surrounding the lake and may have emergent and nonemergent plants High light levels Limnetic zone
Offshore with high light levels Phytoplankton found here Profundal Zone Below the depth of light penetration Aphotic Benthic Zone
Bottom substrate; rich in detritus Temperate Lakes Thermal Stratification Large temperate lakes stratify (become layered) in both the summer and winter Thermocline zone is the zone of rapid temperature change The fall and spring turnovers are times of mixing of oxygen and minerals
More on next slide Temperate Lakes Thermal Stratification II Temperature varies at different lengths during the summer The abrupt temperature transition is called the thermocline During spring and fall turnovers, a mixing of the upper and lower layers of water brings oxygen-depleted depths to the lake AND nutrient minerals to the mineral-deficient
surface water. Temperate Lakes Thermal Stratification III Fall Turnover Surface water cools to 4C Density increases and water sinks and displaces less dense, warmer, mineral-rich water below Warmer water rises to surface and cools and sinks as well Process of sinking and cooling continues until a uniform
temperature is reached. Temperate Lakes Thermal Stratification IV Winter Surface water cools below 4C If cold enough, ice forms on the at 0C
This temperature is important because it is the temperature at which water has its greatest density Ice is less dense than liquid water The water on the bottom is warmer than the ice on top
Temperate Lakes Thermal Stratification V Spring turnover Occurs as ice melts and surface temperature reaches 4C Water becomes dense and sinks to the bottom Bottom water returns to the top Summer
Thermal stratification occurs once again The establishment of a thermocline Temperate Lakes Thermal Stratification VI Why important? Mentioned previously More nutrient minerals at the surface encourages development of large algal and cyanobacterial
populations Temporary blooms in the fall and spring Ponds & Lakes Continued Increased nutrients, stimulated by human activities, fertilizers that contain phosphates and raw sewage, stimulate algal growth
Enrichment caused by human activities leads to eutrophication HWDefine Oligiotrophic Eutrophic Mesotrophic Freshwater Wetlands Transitional between
Introduction Occur where fresh water and saltwater meet Undergo marked changes in temperature, salinity and other physical characteristics Two thirds of the worlds population lives within 150km of a coastline and hence cause impacts on these areas. Salt Marshes & Temperate Estuaries Salt marshes Very productive and are important breeding sites for fish Temperate estuaries
Salt marshes dominated by grasses and sedges Mangrove Forests Dominate in tropical areas and are also important breeding sites for fish Marine Ecosystems
Introduction Dominate earths surface Divided into different zones Intertidal zone Transitional between land and ocean Area between low and high tides
When was the last time you had a walk on the beach? Stressful habitat Types of Intertidal Zones Sandy intertidal zones are characterized by shifting sand
Quicksand? Rocky Intertidal zones Provide anchorage for algae and animals Seagrass Beds, Kelp Forests & Coral Reefs Part of benthic environment/zone
Abyssal Zone Depth of 4000m to 6000m Hadal Zone Greater than 6000m
Coral reefs are restricted to shallow depths and are very productive benthic environments Neritic Province/Zone Shallow waters that are close to shore Up to 200m
Euphotic Region/Photic Zone Lit zone where photosynthesis takes place Zooplankton eat phytoplankton Nektonic organisms
eat zooplankton Oceanic Province/Zone Depths greater than 200m Comprises most of the ocean Marine snow is organic debris that rains down into the euphotic/photic region Overfishing is a threat to both neritic and oceanic provinces
The Georges Bank in New England Review Review Students are encouraged to insert their charts and questions on following slides.
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