Types of Research: - University of Idaho

Types of Research: - University of Idaho

Types of Research: General categories The general types: 1 . Analytical Historical Philosophical Research synthesis (meta-analysis)

2 . Descriptive 3 . Experimental / Quasi-Experimental 4 . Qualitative 5 . Creative Why study history? Why conduct historical

research? Historical: Research that deals with events that have already occurred. An attempt to explain change and continuity in human experience.

Each book, article, piece is shaped by the historians assumptions beliefs, and cultural influences --his/her unstated paradigm. Has similarities to

science Carefully derived questions thoroughly gather and translate evidence (data) Test inferences Work to disprove rather than prove findings

Major difference to science Traditional science: laws describe what some thing is. Relationship among components often expressed mathematically Theory builds upon the description,

also proposes to explain a phenomenon If scientific theory is adequate it will be predictive [it will account for future or further occurrences] Historical view: Humans as rational beings make and

give meaning to social phenomena. Thoughts, actions, individual character of experience & meaning are neither predetermined nor predictable. Theory in history Limited to accounting for meaning to

both describe and explain particular events and processes. Generalizations are large synthetic statements that offer the historians sense of multiple pieces of evidence or data. Uses paradigms:

A scientific model and the approaches used to test that model. also called: perspective, tradition, & approach. Needed areas of research:

Health, leisure, public recreation Education histories Use of drugs to enhance performance Women & minorities Violence and the schools Needed areas continued:

Health interests & programs European ethnic groups experiences both inside and outside education and so forth.. How to start: Topic of interest: read secondary sources to know what historians do

and do not know. Monographs Anthologies Journal articles films, newspapers, and so forth... 2. Level 1: Read as much as possible on

topic Level 2: Read to understand the broader society that affected the subject and conceptual frameworks and social theories that bear on any interpretations & conclusions Level 3: Read to uncover sources of

evidence. In history generally listed as notes pages rather than in the text itself. Descriptive History Method of constructing a map of past experience that locates in time and place a person,

trend, an event, or an organization by providing answers to particular questions. Different from: Antiquarianism: collecting of old things

Chronicle: listing of happenings in time. Analytical Focuses on how something occurred and why someone did something.

Primary sources Archives oral histories

government records, indexes first hand accounts Criticizing sources: External criticism: research process that established the authenticity of the source. Internal Criticism: research

process that establishes the credibility of a genuine artifact or document.

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