Types of signs - University of Waterloo

Types of signs - University of Waterloo

The cognitive basis of language Elements and combinatorics Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (relation of convention) Indexicality (relation of necessity) Iconicity (relation of resemblance) English 306A; Harris Elements + combinatorics At every level Sounds combine into syllables and morphemes Morphemes combine

into words Words combine into phrases and sentences Sentences combine into turns or paragraphs Turns combine into conversations Paragraphs combine into texts English 306A; Harris Meaning Signs Signifier/signified pairs

Index signified association-by-necessity Icon resemblance Symbol cow signifier QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

association-by-convention English 306A; Harris Types of signs Index A sign defined by relationship of necessity (especially cause and effect). Prototypically, think fever. Iconic A sign defined by relationship of resemblance. Prototypically, think picture. Symbolic A sign defined by relationship of arbitrariness,

convention, and learning. Prototypically, think word. English 306A; Harris Dimensions of signs Indexicality A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of necessity (esp. cause and effect). Iconicity A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of resemblance. Symbolicity A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of arbitrariness, convention, and learning.

English 306A; Harris Bow-wow-pooh-pooh-yo-he-hohmmmmm theories Index-to-icon-to-symbol migration theories Pooh-pooh, Yo-he-ho Index-to-icon-to-symbol Bow-wow Index-to-icon-to-symbol Hmmmmm Index+icon-to-symbol English 306A; Harris

Metaphor and metonymy Indirect representation Something (called the vehicle) carries the primary signification for something else (tenor) that ordinarily holds that signification. Metaphor is iconic The vehicle/tenor relationship is an asserted resemblance: the tenor is said to be like the vehicle in some way. Metonymy is indexical The vehicle/tenor relationship is (not exactly necessary but) drawn from the same habitat: the tenor is related to the vehicle in some way. English 306A; Harris

Metonymy, metaphor to go tyson R R P E T N E S E

to go ballistic E V I T A English 306A; Harris A P M O C

T A R E V I Metonymy The principle of set membership One element of a set or a relationship (the vehicle) singled out to represent other element(s) (the tenor)

Hollywood loves westerns. Toronto collapses! Calgary wins in OT! All hands on deck. Thirty head of cattle. English 306A; Harris Metaphor The principle of comparison One element (the vehicle) represents another element (the tenor), to which it is unrelated.

My love is red, red rose. Homer is a pig. Toronto is toast. The table leg is broken. The orthopedic wing is closed. Fire kills thousands every year. (Personification) English 306A; Harris

English 306A; Harris Pussy English 306A; Harris Pussy English 306A; Harris Pussy English 306A; Harris Pussy

English 306A; Harris Pussy Metaphor Tenor = vagina Vehicle = cat Attributes Warm Furry English 306A; Harris ! Pussy! Stage 1

Metonymy (synecdoche) Tenor = woman Vehicle = pussy-asvagina The ultimate devaluing of a (category of a) person: to a small anatomical component. English 306A; Harris Pussy! Stage 2 Metaphor =

Tenor = the insult target Vehicle = woman (not vagina) Attributes Weak Soft Quitter Means Opposite of a man, but in a wholly evaluative way. English 306A; Harris Pussy Metaphor Metonymy Metaphor

Indexicality, Iconicity a relatively mundane example of ordinary language not a fancy literary or rhetorical device these processes, and figuration generally, are pervasive English 306A; Harris We now return you to regular programming F

English 306A; Harris Metonymy, metaphor to go tyson to go ballistic Representation Comparison As ia c so

n o ti The picture is metaphoric; the expression isnt m i S English 306A; Harris ila

y t i r Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he

has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, English 306A; Harris Conceptual Metonymy PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, CONTAINER FOR CONTAINED thats a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, PERSON FOR INSTRUMENT Im parked out back, shes the lead guitar, hes the drill press, PLACE FOR PEOPLE BC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder

Bay is surprisingly liberal, PLACE FOR INSTITUTION Ottawa raised our taxes again, Queens Park changed the speed limits, English 306A; Harris Indexicality is metonymic Defined by association (rather than similarity; often on necessity) There must be a certain physical, temporal, or metaphorical relation between referential objects for the words/expressions to function

English 306A; Harris Indexicality Egocentricity Speaker-oriented Deixis (pointing words) Anthropocentrism Human-oriented Inherent orientation (human-body orientation projected to objects) English 306A; Harris

Indexicality Deictics Gk. deiktos to show Pointing words Langauge which works by gesturing outward from speaker (the ego), to other objects English 306A; Harris Indexical orientation Deictic centre

Lexical egocentricity Pronouns EGO = 1st person (I, me, ) EGO+others = 1st person plural (we, us, ) Hearer-of-EGO = 2nd person (you, your, ) Hearer-of-EGO+others = 2nd person plural (you, your, ) Not-EGO-and-not-hearer-ofEGO = 3rd person (he, she, it, ) Not-EGO-and-not-hearer-ofEGO+others = 3rd person plural (they, them, ) English 306A; Harris

Indexical orientation Deictic centre Lexical egocentricity Proximals Speaking location Where-EGO-is: here, near, Where-EGO-is-not: there, far, Speaking time When-EGO-is: now, today, When-EGO-is-not: then, tomorrow, Relative location to speaker Close-to-EGO: this, these,

Not-close-to-EGO: that, those, .. English 306A; Harris Indexicality Anthropocentricity Gk. anthropos man (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts and entities) front, back left, right before, behind

English 306A; Harris Deictic (egocentric) vs. Inherent (anthropocentric) Orientation c i r nt e c o eg o op

r th ic n a ntr ce English 306A; Harris Metonymy in literature Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar I should have been a pair of

ragged claws Scuttling across the floors of silent seas. T. S. Eliot, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" English 306A; Harris Iconicity is metaphoric Defined by similarity (rather than association) Sequential order Dont drink and drive Distance Immediacy of action

Quantity Reduplication English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of sequential order Unless marked, the order of words mirrors the order of events. He kicked sand in my face and I got mad. I got mad and he kicked sand in my face.

English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of distance Linguistic distance (proximity) tends to mirror conceptual distance. She squeezed me. She gave me a squeeze. She gave a squeeze to me. English 306A; Harris Iconicity

Principle of quantity Length of utterance correlates with (speakers perception of) quantity of concept. Dinosaurs lived a l o o o n g time ago. Dinosaurs lived a long, long, long, time ago. Lawyerese. Political speeches. English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of quantity

Reduplication Japanese hito 'person' hitobito group of people' kami 'god' kamigami group of gods' Mandarin xiao 'small' xiaoxiao 'very small' gaoxing 'happy' gaogaoxingxing 'very happy' English 306A; Harris

Iconicity Principle of quantity Reduplication /ora/ = man / ora ora/ = all sorts of men /anak/ = child /anak anak/ = all sorts of children /maa/ = mango / maa maa / = all sorts of mangoes

English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of quantity Reduplication / ora ora/ the = all sorts of men Download /anak/ = child /anak anak/ = all SIL IPA fonts tosorts of children

these /maa/ = mangosee / maa maa / = all sorts of mangoes transcriptions in PPS files /ora/ = man English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of quantity Conceptual Reduplication Trinidad and Tobago [jEswij]

emphatic confirmation, agreement; interjective intensifier yes-we? yes-whee? yes-oui! English 306A; Harris Any questions? Elements and combinatorics Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (arbitrariness, convention, learning) Indexicality (relation of association) Egocentricity (deixis) Anthropocentricity (inherent orientation)

Iconicity (relation of resemblance) Sequential order Distance Quantity English 306A; Harris

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