Understanding Our Environment

Understanding Our Environment

Chapter 3 Lecture Outline Cells Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Outline History of Cell Theory

Modern Microscopes Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells Cell Structure and Communication Cell Components

Cellular Reproduction History of Cell Theory 1665 - Cells discovered by Robert Hooke. Cell Theory: (1838) ** VIRUSES DUE NOT HAVE CELLS. Are they

ALIVE? Modern Microscopes Light Microscopes - Increase magnification as ____________ passes through a series of ____________. Compound Microscopes: Distinguishes 2 micrometers and larger

Magnifies 1500x Dissecting Microscopes (Scanning Microscopes) Three-dimensional viewing of opaque objects Magnifies 30x EUKARYOTIC VERSUS PROKARYOTIC CELLS

ALL CELLS HAVE: CLASSIFIFICATION BY TYPE OF CELLS: Prokaryotes - Cells lack a ______________________ Type of Organisms = _________ Eukaryotic - Cells contain a ____________________ Type of Organisms ________________________ Organelles - Membrane-bound bodies found which each have a particular function within eukaryotic cells PLANTS have ___________

Cell Structure and Communication in Plants Cell Wall surrounds protoplasm. Protoplasm = _____________________ Cell (Plasma) Membrane & Cytoplasm. = Bound by plasma membrane

Cytoplasm consists of all cellular components between the _________________________________. o Cytosol - _________________________ o Organelles - ______________________ Most, but not all, are bound by membranes. PLANT CELL

Drawing of plant cell Cell Size Higher plants--length between 10-100 mm m Cell of Plant, Elodea CELL WALL FUNCTION: ________________________

STRUCTURE: Main biochemical is? Also contains: Hemicellulose function = __________________ Pectin - _________________________________ Glycoproteins ____________________________

Middle lamella first part produced; Contains: ____________________________ LOCATION: __________________________ Shared by: ____________________ primary walls Secondary walls:

What cells have & why? _______________ Additional component: _______________ Location ___________ Secondary cell wall structure COMMUNICATION THROUGH CELL WALLS Plasmodesmata = _____________________

FUNCTION: ____________________________ PLASMA MEMBRANE Plasma Membrane: FUNCTIONS: ________________________________ Biochemical Composed of: ________________ Orientation of double layer OTHER COMPONENTS:

____________________ Fluid mosaic model _________________________ NUCLEUS Nucleus: FUNCTIONS: STRUCTURE Nuclear Envelope:

Nuclear Pores: Nucleoplasm plant cell Nucleoli - Composed

primarily of RNA Chromatin Strands Composed of: Become: Chromosomes Chromatids =

Centromeres = o Kinetochore = protein complex location = o Spindle fibers (made of microtubules): function = RIBOSOMES

Ribosomes COMPOSITION: STRUCTURE: FUNCTIONS: ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM Endoplasmic reticulum Structure: 2 Types

Rough ER: has FUNCTIONS: Smooth ER FUNCTIONS: Endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes

MICROBODIES, VESSICLES: Structure: EXAMPLES Transport Peroxisomes - Serve in Hot conditions VACUOLES VACUOLES Central Vacuole: 90% water

Tonoplast: Cell Sap: Contains dissolved substances FUNCTIONS: o o Anthocyanins (red, blue, purple)

DICTYOSOMES Dictyosomes, Golgi Apparatus STRUCTURE: FUNCTIONS: EXPORT OF Substances in VESICLES

o Migrate o Fuse o Secrete Examples: cell wall components, nectars, and oils .

MITOCHONDRIA Mitochondria Overall Function: STRUCTURE Cristae. Matrix Drawing of a mitochondrion

AEROBIC RESPIRATION: C6H12O6 + O2 - CO2 + H2O + ENERGY ATP CYTOSKELETON Cytoskeleton: General Function: TYPES Microtubules:

Functions: o Move cellulose for: Cell Wall Microtubules - Functions oFound in flagella and cilia for: oFound

in spindles for: in Microfilaments - Role in cytoplasmic streaming PLASTIDS Plastids =

CHLOROPLASTS: STRUCTURE: Membrane Grana and thylakoids TEM and drawing of chloroplast structure Structure Stroma:

Small circular DNA molecule: Replication: EQUATION: CO2 + H2O + Light Energy + Chlorophyll -- C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O . Plastids CHROMOPLASTS

Structure Function: LEUCOPLASTS Structure Amyloplasts:

Elaioplasts: Chromoplasts in red pepper cells Amyloplasts in Potato cells Cellular Reproduction & The Cell Cycle Cell Cycle = Divided into:

ONION ROOT TIP with cells in various stages of Interphase and phases of Mitosis Interphase: Amount of Life Cycle? STAGES G1 = 1ST GROWTH:

S = SYNTHESIS: G2 = 2nd GROWTH: Interphase & Mitosis in Onion Root Cells MITOSIS

Mitosis = Produces: number of cells Location in Plants: Is a continuous process-- 4 phases: Prophase Chromosomes o Spindle fibers collectively spindle

o Nuclear envelope and nucleolus: Prophase Metaphase Chromosomes align: Metaphase

Anaphase Spindle fibers: Chromosomes & Sister chromatids: Daughter Chromosomes. Anaphase Telophase Nuclear envelope & Nucleoli:

Daughter chromosomes: Spindle fibers: Cytokinesis: Telophase cell plate: Cell plate formation Review

History of Cell Theory Modern Microscopes Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells Cell Structure and Communication

Cell Components Cellular Reproduction Onion Root Elodea Leaf

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