Understanding the Landmarks - Michigan's Mission: Literacy
Understanding the Landmarks The Next Chapter Session 3 Barb Mick - COOR ISD Jackie Fry - COP ESD The Next Chapter Goals for Michigan Literacy: THE NEXT CHAPTER 1. Understand the MLPP (Michigan Literacy Progress Profile) and improve our use of formative assessment to guide our instruction. 2. Improve our understanding of literacy. 3. Learn what is new in the research on teaching reading and writing. 4. Build our literacy teaching skills. Goals for Session 3 1. Understand the newest research and thinking about comprehension.
2. Examine various components of comprehension and practice ways to assess those components. 3. Think more deeply about how the Common Core asks us to look at comprehension, especially through Close and Critical Reading. 4. Think together about how comprehension instruction changes over the grade levels. NAEP 4th grade Reading: 30% proficient or advanced, compared to 34% nationally (Massachusetts was the highest with 48%) 8th grade Reading: 33% proficient or advanced, compared to 34% nationally (Massachusetts was again the highest with 48%)
Michigans scores remained stalled when compared to the 2011 results Local Results percent proficient on 2013-14 MEAP 4th 8th CASD 66% 82% Fairview
73% 84% HLCS 59% 63% Mio 65% 67% RAPS 72%
84% WBRC 70% 80% CHA 60% 56% Legislation Proposed House Bill 5111 would require any student who did not score proficient or above in reading
on our states standardized test to be retained. There are no provisions in the bill to address special education students or English Language Learners. If passed as is, that would mean 36,000 students across our state would be held back. Remember Keep the main thing the main thing! Its all about making meaning.
Quick Write What questions do you have going into tonights session? Your Turn Bring out your case study files. Share the assignment from Session 2 with your table (Reading Log, running record, and class engagement survey). What did you learn about your case study students?
What surprised you? How does this information fit with the picture you are forming of each student as a reader & writer? What are the points of strength for each student? What teaching points and goals do you have for each student? 3 Cueing Systems Text Story sense
Illustrations Prior Knowledge Meaning Print conventions Grammatical Patterns & Language Structures - Knowledge of English Structure Visual
Directionality Words/spaces Letters Beginnings/Endings Punctuation Analogies Natural Language Sounds and Symbols Analyzing the Cueing Systems Meaning (Semantic) What is it? Structure (Syntactic)
Visual (Graphaphoni c) Does it make sense? Does it sound right? Does it look right? making sense of text and relaying meaningful connections making sense of the
actual words in the sentences breaking words down into letters, sounds, syllables, prefixes, chunks, etc. context clues found in the text and/or background knowledge (comes from the students own experiences) structural cues come from the students knowledge of
correct oral language structures the way in which language is put together into sentences, phrases, paragraphs, etc. visual cues come from student's developing knowledge of letter/ sound relationships and of how letters are formed what letters and words look like What Are the Teaching Points?
Meaning (Semantic) Instructional Ideas Teachers need to teach genres, or nature of text forms, purpose for reading, does the word fit, what information do the illustrations provide and what has happened so far. vocabulary lists oral predicting story line prompts prior knowledge pictures connections webs
graphic organizers context clues, pictures, text reading the room how to choose a book KWL Structure (Syntactic) Visual (Graphophoni c) Teaching suggestions are to model more complex sentence structures and sentence
reconstruction with familiar stories. Do the sounds and the words I am reading match the words on the page (phonological awareness cueing system) Behaviors that capitalize on structure; - reading ahead, and re reading cut up sentences guess the covered word natural language knowledge of English
making big words month by month phonics word sorts word analogies sounds and symbols capitalization punctuation directionality word and spaces beginnings and endings word families root words syllables Miscue Analysis
Which of the cueing systems is the student using? Do a running record if you are not sure! Older students that struggle usually are overdependent on phonics (visual); teach them to utilize a variety of systems. The 7 Comprehension Strategies Making Connections
Repair understanding 4 Questions About Text 1. What does the text SAY? 2. How does the AUTHOR say it? 3. What does it MEAN? 4. So what? What does it mean to ME? AgainSerravallo Strategy Lesson Guided Reading Same book Instructional level Structure: book, intro, reading, teach Why? Support with level A-K
Different books (everyone brings their choice) Independent level Structure: strategy, kids practice while teacher coaches, link Why? Teach a strategy G and Up What are the Experts Saying About Close Reading and Comprehension Instruction? 1. Number off 1-7 around the room until everyone has a number. 2. You will have 7 minutes to read the blog post with your number. Be sure to annotate your text.
3. When the timer goes off, you will find the other people with your number and you will talk about your blog post. You will have 5 minutes to discuss. 4. Next, your group will summarize your blog in no more than 10 words. What message did you take from this reading? 5. Finally, come up with ONE compelling question you still have. Write your question on the chart paper at the front of the room. You will have 10 minutes to complete your summary and develop your question. 6. Be ready to read your summary to the group. Text Complexity The CCSS requires greater rigor and more complex text. Nobody is saying that students in the primary grades should read harder text; we do expect that we are reading harder text TO them. By 2nd grade, students
should be doing the reading. We want students of all ages digging into complex text, thinking deeply about that text, and finding the evidence for their thinking in that text. We have to understand what makes the text hard. Those hard parts become our teaching points. Text Complexity Rubric from Notice & Note (Beers & Probst, 2013)
Knowing what to listen for: Productive group work in action How do you know productive group work when you hear it? What is Close Reading? Powerful Close Reading Instruction must raise engagement and joy, not diminish it must lead to student independence, not dependence on teachers prompting
must be one piece of your reading instruction, not the only part of your instruction must allow time for students to read for extended periods and across many pages of text, not interrupt time spent reading with activities must be repeated across time and involve lots of opportunities for practice, not be a one-time, off-the-checklist activity must be designed in response to the strengths and needs of your students, not planned solely to match a book or fit a scope and sequence
What is Close Reading? It is an interaction between the reader and a text (Douglas Fisher in the online video interview, Close Reading and the Common Core Standards, April 3, 2012) It is about making careful observations of a text and then interpretations of those observations (Patricia Kain for the Writing Center at Harvard University, 1998) It involves rereading; often rereading a short portion of a text that helps a reader to carry new ideas to the whole text (Kylene Beers and Robert
Probst in Notice and Note, 2012) Creating a Close Reading We will be reading this text multiple times. Doug Fisher 1. Use a short passage. 2. Read with a pencil. (Teach them to annotateeven our youngest studentssticky notes.) 3. Note whats confusing. 4. Pay attention to patterns. 5. Give students a chance to struggle a bit. Read like a detective. Write like a reporter David Coleman Creating a Close
Reading Understanding at a deep level what the author intends is critical before you can make a personal connection. You choose a piece of text, figure out what makes it hard, then design your lesson around this list. In a close reading, we avoid frontloading and pre-teaching vocabulary. Close reading is a type of guided instruction (We do it on the GRR)
Plan to read the text 4, 5, 6 timesif you dont need to do this, your questions arent deep enough. Students do a cold reading first. Tell them, I know this is hard. Its okay; were going to read it again and again to get it. In the early grades, the first read is a read-aloud. How to Do a Close Reading 1. First, read through lenses: Decide what you will be paying attention to while reading and collect those details. 2. Next, use lenses to find patterns: Look across all of the details you have collected and find patterns. As Dorothy Barnhouse and Vicki Vinton discuss in What Readers Really Do (2012), details alone do not mean much until you begin
to see relationships across them. 3. Finally, use the patterns to develop a new understanding of the text: Consider these patterns in light of what you have already learned from the text. Put these together to develop a new understanding of the text or a deeper, evidence-based interpretation. Reading Closely for Text Evidence 1. Read through lenses. Choose specific details to gather as data: What characters/people say/think/do Relationships Setting descriptions Time period 2. Use lenses to find
patterns. What details fit together? How do they fit together? 3. Use the patterns Look at patterns to think about: to Characters/peoples develop a new - feelings understanding - traits of - relationships the text. Whole text: - themes - lessons
Text Dependent Questions Do the questions require the reader to return to the text? Do the questions require the reader to use evidence to support his or her ideas or claims? Do the questions move from text-explicit to text-implicit knowledge? Are there questions that require the reader to
analyze, evaluate, and create? Progression of Text Dependent Questions Across Texts WHOLE Questions, Arguments, Inter-textual connections Entire Texts Inferences Segments Authors Purpose
Paragraphs Vocabulary & Text Structure Sentence Key Details Word PART General Understanding General Understandings Overall view Sequence of information
Story Arc Main claim and evidence Gist of the passage The Very Hungry Caterpillar Retell the story in order using beginning, middle, and end. Key Details Search for nuances in meaning Determine importance of ideas Find supporting details that support main ideas Answers who, what, when, where, why, how much, or how many
Key Details in Kindergarten The Very Hungry Caterpillar How long did it take to go from a hatched egg to a butterfly? What is one food that gave him a stomachache? What is one food that did not give him a stomachache? Foods that did not give him a stomachache Foods that gave him a stomachache Apples Ice cream Pears
Pickle Plums Swiss cheese Strawberries Salami Oranges Green leaf Lollipop Cherry pie Sausage Cupcake Watermelon Vocabulary & Text Structure
Bridges literal and inferential meaning Denotation Connotation Shades of meaning Figurative language How organization contributes to meaning Vocabulary in Kindergarten How does the author teach us what the word cocoon means? Authors Purpose Genre: Entertain? Explain? Inform? Persuade? Point of view:
First-person, third-person, limited, omniscient, unreliable narrator Critical literacy: represented? Whose story is NOT Authors Purpose in Kindergarten The Very Hungry Caterpillar Who tells the story the narrator or the caterpillar? A narrator tells the story because he uses the words he and his. If it was the caterpillar, he would say I and my.
Inference Probe each argument in persuasive text, How do certain parts of the text fit together? Each idea in informational text, Inferences in Kindergarten And each key idea in narrative text. The title of the book is The Very Hungry Caterpillar. How do we know the caterpillar is hungry?
Opinions, Arguments, and Inter-textual Connections Authors opinion with reasoning Claims Evidence Counterclaims Ethos, pathos, logos Rhetoric Across texts Opinion, Argument, and Intertextual Connections in Kindergarten The Very Hungry
Caterpillar Is this a happy story or a sad one? How do you know? Monarch Butterfly How are these two books similar? How are they different? What if we added one more to the mix? Your Assignment 1. Create a Close Reading lesson; keep notes about how it went and be ready to share next time. 2. Complete a retelling assessment with your 3 case study students using the Retelling Rubric. 3. Complete a summary assessment with your 3
case study students using the Summary Rubric. 4. Complete the Reflection Question for session 3. Ticket Out the Door & Wrap Up Please complete your Gots/Needs reflection and turn it in as you leave. Our next meeting will be: Consider This Best Practice to Inform Our Planning. We will be looking more closely at comprehension and sharing more strategies. Thank you for your hard work, thoughtful
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