UNHCR Representation in Ethiopia

UNHCR Representation in Ethiopia

UNHCR Representation in Ethiopia Safe Access to Sustainable Energy for Domestic Cooking, Baking, Heating and Lighting for Refugees and Host Community services Briefing Note to the Energy and Environment Task-Force Addis Ababa 2nd November 2017 02/29/2020 1 The SAFE 2015-2018 Country Strategy at a Glance UNHCR-Ethiopia operation developed SAFE and Natural Resources Management Country Strategy 2015-2018, with the following strategic objectives: Expanding Energy Access: Scale-up access to safe and sustainable energy services for domestic cooking, heating, lighting and community services such as water supply, health-care, education, and street lighting; office management and productive use. Increase use of Renewable Energy: Replacing the use of non-sustainable biomass and fossil fuels, expanding access through renewable energy systems and increasing the contribution of renewables in the total energy mix for domestic use, community services and productive use Improve Energy Efficiency: Improve energy conversion and end-use efficiency Sustainable Environment and Natural Resource Management: Ensuring sustainable management of forest resources, degraded land management and biodiversity conservation Unlock Business Potential for Energy Delivery: Building a vibrant energy market by catalysing private sector investment through targeted business development services and encouraging the development and replication of innovative business models Capacity Building: Strengthen the capacity of the UNHCR and partners to effectively manage this Strategy through improved staffing, staff training and implementation of an effective M&E system 02/29/2020 2 The two way Approaches and the main pillars in the Strategy I. ENERGY: Scale up safe access to Energy and Domestic fuels for cooking and fuel efficient cook stoves and cooking utensils II. ENVIRONMENT: Shared rehabilitation of refugee impacted areas and management of the natural resources and bio-diversity conservation Why Energy at the center? b/c Energy is a cross-cutting issue touching the areas of: Relief/Assistances Protection

Health Education Nutrition Shelter Environment WASH Livelihood, etc. While Environment is the basis for favorable habitation and sustained supply of energy and alternative energy sources, water, shelter, livelihood etc. Their criticality begins at emergency level stretching to transition to mixed solutions. Direly needed services but often marginalized because of competing priorities and limited budgets. 02/29/2020 3 SAFE 2015-2018 Strategic Goal by 2018 70% of refugee households have access to energy/renewable energy sources for cooking ,baking, heating, lighting and productive use displacing the non-sustainable fuel-wood; 70% of the refugee households have access to fuel saving stoves; 70% of the refugee households have access to modern energy (solar PV) for domestic lighting; 50% of water supply schemes use renewable energy (solar, wind or hybrid systems); 50% of health facilities, schools and office services have access to reliable electricity; 70% of the refugee population has access to street light 50% of the refugee impacted degraded lands rehabilitated 02/29/2020 4 SAFE 2015/2017 Baselines, Performance Indicators/progress and 2018 Targets for the supply of Fuel Saving stoves (FSS), SL, SSL, and Electrification:2015/2017 70% 70% 70%

56% Percentage 50% 50% 31% 31% 21% 13% 12% 12% 9% 0% 2% Baseline Progress Interventions 02/29/2020 5 Target Iinstitutions involved in the supply of FSS, SL, SSL, and Electrification, Gaps and Actions Required :2015/2017 Strategic goal: Access to energy. Baseline (%) Performance indicator (%) Target (%) Responsible Institution Gaps (%) Action Remark*

Access to fuel saving stoves (FSS) 13 30.8 70 UNHCR, ZOA, GAIA 56 Institutions must continue providing FSS. Provide training and promote local production of stove Accounts the damaged and the sold: The fig. does not reflect the current reality PV-Domestic home lighting 12 56 70 UNHCR 20 UNHCR and its partners should continue providing home light with raining and enforcing the implementation of the SOP circulated Current gaps are more than that indicated in this table The info. Accounts the damaged and the

sold. Solar water pumping 0 12 50 UNHCR, IRC 76 UNHCR and WASH partners shall continue replacing diesel run water pumping systems, irrigation systems and , office service etc. by PV-solar powers Training of staff, & maintenance kits must be availed all time Electrification of School and health centers 0 9 50 UNHCR, ARRA, i.t.dUPM 82 UNHCR & its partners should continue providing the PV powered electrical services to all schools and health centers 3 communal kitchen (MiaoAini, Adi-Harush

& Sherekole) are connected to the National grid 1 health center in SOMEL on process with PV. Access to solar 21 31.4 70 UNHCR 55.2 UNHCR and its partners should continue providing Pertains to SSLdistributed in Jijigiga, Shire, 02/29/2020 6street lights(SSL) SAFE 2015-2018 Baselines, Performance Indicators/progress and 2018 Targets for the supply of Ethanol, Kerosene, Briquette and Electricity Fuel and Power Supplied 60000 50000 Households 40000 Baseline Achivement Target 30000 20000 10000 0

Ethanol Kerosene Briquette Electricity Domestic Fuel Type of fuel Ethanol Kerosene Briquette Electricity 02/29/2020 7 Baseline:2015 4,276 hhs 19,466 hhs 0 hhs 7,588 hhs Achievement: 2017 9,377 hhs 13,914 hhs 2,120 hhs 12,435 hhs Target :2018 17,033 hhs 9,850 hhs 57,614 hhs 22,573 hhs Institution involved in the supply of Ethanol, Kerosene, Briquette, Electricity, Gaps and Actions Required Strategic goal: Access to Baseline (HHs) Performanc e indicator (HHs) Target (HHs) Responsibl e Institution (s)

Gaps (HHs) Action Remark* Ethanol 4,276 9,377 17,033 UNHCR, GAIA 7656 Institutions must continue providing Ethanol fuel and ethanol stoves and promote local maintenance and assembly of the stoves on site Expansion of Ethanol cook fuel to other camps such as SOMEL,Semara, Shire and Assossa camps is recommended Kerosene 19,466 13,914 9,850 UNHCR 4064 UNHCR and its partners should continue replacing Kerosene by clean fuels (ethanol) Currently Kerosene is being supplied following the

traditional fuel distribution system which would have been otherwise Briquette 0 2120 57,614 ZOA, Gaia 55,494 Feasibility study on acceptability, resource availability, sustainability and affordability study must be undertaken prior to the engagement. The plan was too ambitious and over emphasizes briquette supply as sole solution to the problem rather consider mixed solutions particularly for Gamebella and Assosa camps. Electricity 7,588 12,465 22,573 UNHCR, ARRA, i.t.dUPM 10,108 UNHCR & its partners shall continue providing the service to cover all camps in Shire and Assosa Grid connection action shall extend its service to Camps closer to the national grid:

such as in Gambella Samara , Jigjiga etc. 02/29/2020 8 What worked and what didnt? Provision Worked Didnt Reason Action required Remark Access to fuel saving stoves (FSS) Partially - Being sold or damaged Fulfill unmet needs. Institute repair and maintenance scheme on site with spare parts. Enforce the SOP Most items are sold to purchase unmet needs fuel in particular Repair and maintenance shops contribute to livelihood engagement PV-Domestic home lighting Partially - Being sold or damaged Fulfill unmet needs. Institute repair and maintenance scheme on site with spare parts and trained staff. Enforce the SOP Most items are sold to purchase unmet needs. Repair and maintenance shops

contribute to livelihood engagement Solar water pumping Worked n/a n/a Scale up, ensure the availability of spare parts and trained staff Repair and maintenance shops contribute to livelihood engagement Electrification of School and health centers Worked (only available in Dolo) n/a n/a Scale-up, ensure the availability of spare parts , repair and maintenance schemes and trained staff Repair and maintenance shops contribute to livelihood engagement Access to solar street lights(SSL) Partially - Vandalized or damaged train staff, Institute repair and maintenance scheme on site with spare parts. Enforce the SOP SSL are vandalized; B/C poles are used as post for shelters and batteries to recharge mobile phones. Repair and maintenance shops contribute to

livelihood engagement What worked and what didnt? contd Provision Worked Didnt Reasons Action required Remark Ethanol Worked n/a n/a Train staff, establish repair and maintenance or assembling workshops for the stoves on site Provide spare parts . Make an arrangement with the Ethiopian SC to produce ethanol on site as appropriate . Repair and maintenance shops contribute to livelihood engagement. Producing ethanol on site reduces costs related to logistics making it even cheaper etc. but needs thorough cost and benefit analysis. Kerosene Worked but to phase out n/a n/a Reduce and substitute the supply of kerosene It is unsafe, unclean more hazardous and expensive than ethanol which is a clean cooking fuel as well Briquette

Partially (pilot) n/a Sustainability is under risk due to lack of Thorough study on the cost and benefit of the product, availability of raw materials/feedstock/and supply value chain be initiated before new engagement and to also improve the active programs . UNHCR should play the leading role in coordinating energy and environmental programs thorough cost/benefit analysis, study on the availability of raw materials/feedstock/ less consultation and low coordination . Electricity Worked n/a n/a UNHCR and Partners should continue expanding the provision of electricity from mini-grids, grids and PV-power sources Provide training on electrical safety procedure and maintenance and handling of electrical equipment Bio-gas Pilot stage Didnt Continuity is under risk due to lack of Thorough study on the cost and benefit of the product, availability of raw materials/feedstock/ and value chain be initiated before new engagement and to also improve the active programs . UNHCR should play the leading role in coordinating energy and environmental programs

Technologies do not support current needs n/a n/a thorough cost and benefit analysis, on the availability of raw materials/feedstock/ including less consultation and low coordination . Solar cooker 02/29/2020 10 Didn't n/a Where we stand now (SAFE): Ethanol, Briquette, FSS and Kerosene supply: 2015-2017 Refugee camp Afar Assosa Melkadida Gambella Jijiga Shire 02/29/2020 11 Number of HHS HHs supply indicator Ethanol fuel supply (HHs) Briquette supply (HHs) 5,903 Target Achievement

30% 870 Gap 16,075 38,711 82,507 6,093 22,740 Kerosene fuel supply (HHs) 30% 0 Access to fuel saving stoves (FSS) (HHs) 70% 0 900 1,650 4,132 - Target Achievement 22% 420 35% 820 70% 1200 7004 6946 Gap 3,051

4,676 10,052 0 Target Achievement No - 40% 0 55% 0 25% 1038 Gap - 15,484 21,291 7,600 Target Achievement No - 50% 0 100% 23,861 No - Gap - 41,254 29,507

- Target Achievement 100% 6,093 No - No - No - Gap 0 - - - Target Achievement 40% 1994 70% 1300 70% 0 No - Gap 6,841 14,618 15,920 - No -

Where we stand now (SAFE):Lighting ,Electricity, SL,SSL supply:2015-2017 Refugee camp Number of households Afar 5,903 Assosa Melkadida Gambella Jijiga Shire 02/29/2020 12 16,075 38,711 82,507 6,093 22,740 Solar lantern provision Solar street lighting Target Achievement Electricity for cooking (communal kitchen) No - 100% 90% 100% 0 Gap

- 10% Target Achievement 60% 20% 100% 3% 100% (370 SSLs) Gap 40% 97% 50% (502 SSLs) Target Achievement No - 50% 100% 50% 70% (1700 SSLs) Gap - 0 Terget Achievement No - Gap -

0 50% 75% 0 Target Achievement No - 70% 70% 50% 75% (288 SSLs) Gap 100% 50% 0 0 Target Achievement 80% 23% 50% Gap 50% 57% 34% (485 SLs) HH supply-indicator 50% 0 50% 21% (1100 SSLs) 29% (1500 SSLs) 16% (226 SLs)

Current Domestic Fuel Consumption Domestic fuel consumption by type per Camp 120% % of Households 100% 80% 60% 100% 68% 46% 20% 0% 90% 85% 40% Gambella Assosa Shire Afar 0% Jijiga Fuel Type Biomass/Firewood 02/29/2020 13 Ethanol Briquette Kerosene Electricity Melkadida Contribution Percentage

Proposed Mixed Energy Solution Proportion of Mixed fuel intervention by camp 30% 20% 30% 40% 50% 40% 20% 100% 70% 40% Afar Assosa 50% 50% Melkadida Gambella Refugee Camps Ethanol 02/29/2020 14 Briquette Kerosene 60% Jijiga Shire Mixed Energy Budget Requirement Estimated cost for proposed Domestic fuel supply by camp per year Cost: USD

7,000,000 5,944,930 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,563,167 4,000,000 3,000,000 1,839,830 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 1,458,023 608,650 470,702 Afar Assosa Melkadida Refugee camps 02/29/2020 15 Gambella Jijiga Shire Investment Cost Alternative Energy capital costs 7,000,000 6,340,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 2,747,087 Cost: USD 3,000,000

1,926,400 2,000,000 1,150,006 1,000,000 0 l So ar la er nt n l So e re st r a ig tl ht e El ri ct ty ci :C a un m om l tc

ki he n Alternative Energy Items 02/29/2020 16 621,494 216,756 ha Et n s ol v to e se ro e K ne ov st e i Br e qu tte ov st e Planned Budget and Allocation Gap: SAFE 2015-2017 Planned and Allocated budget for Energy 12,000,000

Budget: USD 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 0 2015 2016 2017 -2,000,000 Year Planned 02/29/2020 17 Allocated Gap 02/29/2020 18 Natural Resource Management and Environmental Rehabilitation Interventions Re-forestation of degraded forest lands Greening camps with various plant species Gully controls and rehabilitation of risk prone sites with biological and physical structures including gabion wall construction Awareness raising on environmental consequences Integration of livelihood projects with environmental programs Expansion of bio-sphere and protective areas and Area enclosures are being undertaken in various camps to reduce further impacts and natural disasters such flood, avalanches and land slides Plantation expansion

Different types of tree species are being raised and planted across the camps To date more than 795 hectares of land has been afforested mainly in Gambella and Assosa camps This equates to about 4 Million trees seedlings raised and planted in and around refugees/host community impacted areas Land development and area enclosure Soil and water conservation activities are ongoing in and around all camps Area enclosure and gabion walls have worked well for degraded areas in Shire, Check dams and gulley control measures have worked better in SOMEL, Jigjiga and Assosa refugee camps Biological control have effectively controlled lands from denudation and slidding by flood in Gambella and Assosa camps Survival rate of re-forested areas being better in Gambella and Assosa camps as the rainfall is relatively high Greening camps with various plant species has resulted well in all camps in institutions and around HHs where protection is ensured Challenges of NRM and Environmental Rehabilitation program Low priority Shortage of alternative solution for fuel wood and construction materials Scale of intervention limited against the massive natural resource and environmental degradation in and around the camps. Excessive dependence on exotic tree species Area enclosure not very well practiced Weak refugee and host community mobilization in NRM and Environmental activities Non-integration of fuel wood plantations with re-forestation and woodlots Weak integration of livelihood activities with natural resource interventions Climate change Planned Budget and Allocation Gap: SAFE 2015-2017 Planned and Allocated Budget for Environment 3,500,000 3,000,000

Budget: USD 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 2015 2016 2017 Year Planned 02/29/2020 23 Allocated Gap Hectare Where we stand now in Reforestation and Degraded Land rehabilitation:2015-2017 795 705 373 175 0 Afforestation Rehabilitation Baseline: 2014 02/29/2020 24 101 Achievement: 2015/17 Target: 2018 02/29/2020 25 Mapping of E & E Partners 1. Somali Refugees in Ethiopia (Jijiga and Melkadida)

Implementing partner Sector GAIA Energy SEE Environment PWO Environment 02/29/2020 26 Main activities Provision of ethanol in Jijiga, Installation of solar street lights and solar home systems in Melkadida Distribution of seedlings to the refugee and host communities, physical and biological rehabilitation of degraded lands Seedling distribution, area enclosure and irrigated woodlot development Plan for 2018 -Empower the refugee committees to repair and maintain energy equipment's - Management and training to increase the survival rate of plantations - Promotion of gum & resin producing trees, plastic recycling (4Ds) - Pilot planting of fuel plants (like Jatropha) Partners Mappingctd 1. South Sudanese Refugees in Ethiopia (Gambella) Implementing partner Sector Main activities UNHCR, ARRA, AHADA Energy Distribution of solar lanterns and installation of solar street lights

NRDEP Environment Rehabilitation and reforestation of degraded lands 02/29/2020 27 Plan for 2018 - Briquette production and distribution, biogas production and distribution. - Establishment of energy cooperatives for management, maintenance and protection of solar lanterns and street lights - Establishment of woodlot for fuel wood consumption - Community based environmental management and establishment of woodlots - Integration of livelihood and environmental management Partners Mappingctd. 1. Sudanese Refugees in Ethiopia (Assosa) Implementing partner Sector Main activities Plan for 2018 GAIA Energy Alternative energy provision (kerosene, ethanol and briquette) Scale up the pilot projects and apply the energy mix LWF Energy Biogas production from cow dung

Ensure the sustainable supply of feedstock NRDEP Environment Tree plantation, construction of firebreaks, continue the forest protection and tree planting 02/29/2020 28 Partners Mappingctd 1. Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia(Shire and Afar) Implementing partner Sector Main activities Plan for 2018 OSD Energy Alternative energy (ethanol, briquette and solar lanterns) - EECMY Energy Alternative energy (ethanol and solar lanterns) ZOA Energy Briquette production from sesame husk UNHCR, ARRA Energy Grid Connected Electricity

ARDO, OSD Environment Environmental rehabilitation and area enclosure 02/29/2020 29 - Briquette production from Prosopis in Barhale and Aysaita and continue the provision of ethanol Expansion of briquette distribution in Afar camps Expansion of grid connected communal kitchen in shire National grid connection for communal kitchen in Aysaita and Barahle - Seedling plantation and camp greening - Establishment of woodlots Partners Mapping 1. Kenya Borena refugees in Ethiopia(Kenya Borena) Implementing partner Sector Main activities Plan for 2018 ANE Energy Provision of alternative energy (fuel saving stoves and solar lanterns) Proper training and management ANE Environment Replanting and protection of the Awareness creation and environment environmental trainings 02/29/2020 30

Other Initiatives 1. Jijiga: Carbon Credit registration for clean Ethanol stoves (GAIA) 2. Afar: Grid connected electricity for communal kitchen (EECMY), Briquette (OSD) 3. Shire: Grid connected electricity for communal kitchen, street lights and productive use (Alianza Shire, i.t.d UPM), Briquette production (ZOA) 4. Gambella: Assessment of cooking fuel energy demand and alternative energy sources (OSD), Woodlot development in collaboration with FAO 5. Assosa: Biogas production (LWF), Briquette production (GAIA/PRM), Grid connected communal kitchen (ARRA) 6. SOMEL: assessment and testing the potential for cooking energy options (Gaia) 7. National Energy assessment: Integration 02/29/2020 31 What is expected from the E& E WG Advocacy Coordination Fund raising Pressure group Monitoring and evaluation Cross-sectoral link Represent E & E in all E & E related affairs 02/29/2020 32 02/29/2020 33

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