Unit 1: Ancient Civilizations

Unit 1: Ancient Civilizations

Unit 1: Ancient Civilizations Ancient Greece Unit 1: Ancient Greece Greek Geography: Reading the Map GREECE Islands Isolated Communities Diet: fish

Need water transportatio n Affects trade Peloponnesus (large land mass) Dominates the rest of the country b/c of larger population

Rugged Mountains Isolated communities Trade is difficult Communication is difficult Travel is difficult Provides protection for the people

UNIT 1:GREECE People of the Aegean MINOANS Founded 2800 BC on island of Crete Palace complex at Knossos was center of empire Sea based Collapsed 1450 BC after

invasion by Mycenaeans MYCENAE First Greek State: 1600-1100 BC Mostly warriors, took over sur areas Homer (poet) wrote acct of King Agamemnon & Trojan war story States fought each other, by 1100, Mycenae collapsed

DARK AGES OF GREECE 1100-750 BC Reduced population, food production and record keeping Increased use of iron, development of alphabet HOMER: POET OF THE DARK AGES Wrote

epic poems Illiad and Odyssey, Account of Trojan War Illiad: story of Achilles, his anger & downfall Odyssey: story of Odysseus return to wife after Trojan War Homer recorded poems passed down for gens HOMER: POET OF THE DARK AGES

Homers writings were used to educate young men in reading and in character UNIT 1: GREECE Greece: Greek City-States Ancient Greece

Geography Shapes Greece Mediterranean & Aegean Seas important to Greek civ Rapid pop growth by 750 BC Ppl forced to spread out Governing the City-States

Polis = Greek version of city-state City itself built on 2 levels:

Had major city/town & surrounding area Acropolis high city on top of a hill Walled main city below Citizens = free residents; pop usually small Rights of citizens = unequal Who had the power? Governing the City-States

Power to male landowners Govt evolved over time King ruled polis in a monarchy Eventually became aristocracy

Monarchy = govt w/ king or queen; hereditary Aristocracy = rule by landholding elite; hereditary Became oligarchy Oligarchy = power in hands of a small, wealthy elite

Governing the City-States Advanced military tech Gave more power to middle class Iron weapons replaced bronze New way of fighting = phalanx

Large formation of heavily armed foot soldier Reduced class diffs Sparta: Warrior Society

Sparta on south Peloponnesus; settled by Dorian invaders from north Conquered ppl = state owned slaves helots Very brutal Govt:

2 kings; council of elders; assembly of citizens; 5 ephors (officials) Citizens = male, native-born Spartans over 30 Sparta: Warrior Society Discipline in daily life Prepped to be warriors as kids

Boys began training at age 7 & toughened up Only strong healthy babies kept

Moved to barracks, tough exercise, diet, strict discipline Men could marry at 20 live in barracks 10 more years & eat there for 40 more Age 30: became member of assembly Sparta: Warrior Society Spartan women:

Expected to have healthy sons for army Need to be strong & exercise Obey fathers & husbands Spartans isolated themselves Looked down on trade/wealth/travel

Spartans are willing to die for their city, because they have no reason to live Athens & Democracy Greek city-state north of Peloponnesus Government:

Monarchy aristocracy Land owners had power by 700 BC; chose officials, were judges, dominated assembly Wealth & power grew but so did discontent among people Resentment, loss of land, slavery, debt

Athens & Democracy Slowly moved toward democracywhat is democracy??? Democracy government by the people Solon appointed chief official in 594 BC

Able to make needed reforms Outlawed debt slavery / freed those already sold Granted citizenship to foreigners; gave assembly more say; higher offices to citizens Athens & Democracy

Solon: Citizenship still limited; continued/widespread unrest

Economic reforms export of wine, olive oil Led to rise of tyrants ppl who gain power by force Tyrants gave poor bigger voice, ordinary citizens larger role in govt Made assembly a legislature lawmaking body that talked ~ laws before making decisions Athens & Democracy

Limited democracy: only citizens participate Women in Athens: Women guided by men; large public role in religion; managed house

Youth & Education: Boys attended school if fam could afford Reading, writing, music, poetry, public speaking Military training & athletics but knowledge imp

Forces for Unity Greeks united by common culture Religion: polytheistic Gods lived on Mount Olympus Some Gods/Goddesses: Zeus

Most powerful; ruled over all Ares God of war Aphrodite Goddess of love Athena Goddess of wisdom Forces for Unity Religion Forces for Unity

Religion: Honored gods with temples, festivals, sacrifices, feasts, entertainment, athletic competitions Greek View of Outsiders:

Called foreigners barbaroi (ppl who didnt speak Greek) Felt superior to these ppl Assignment Draw a comic strip that shows a day in the life of either a Spartan teenager or an Athenian teenager. Remember the

differences between them! You must have 8 squares on your paper Unit 1: Greece Conflict in the Greek World The Persian Wars: 490-479 BC Persians conquered Ionia, a group of Greek city-states Ionian Greeks rebelled Athens came to help

Persians went to Marathon to get back at Athens Had to retreat Xerxes became Persian ruler after Darius I sent larger force to conquer Athens

The Persian Wars Sparta & other city-states joined with Athens Persia Thermopylae & Leonidas (Spartan) Persians burnt Athens to ground Persians defeated by Greeks

City-states united in victory Athens became most powerful citystate & formed Delian League Organized alliance with others Athens used to their advantage The Age of Pericles & Democracy Golden Age (460-429 BC) yrs after wars Pericles leader of Athens Created thriving economy;

more democratic govt Thought all citizens should take part in govt Acropolis was rebuilt Athens: cultural center of Greece The Peloponnesian War Greece

split: Athens v everyone else Sparta & others formed Peloponnesian League 431 BC war broke out btwn Sparta & Athens (27 years) Sparta allied with Persia and they captured Athens in 404 BC War ended Athenian domination Unit 1: Greece Greece: The Glory That Was Greece Philosophers

Socrates Plato Aristotle Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom Philosophers: Greek thinkers used observations/reason to explain things lovers of wisdom Explored all areas: logic, ethics, morality Athens: Sophists dev skills in rhetoric

Socrates Socrates: Athenian philosopher Asked ppl about beliefs & get them to examine their answers (Socratic method) Way to seek truth/self-knowledge Seen as threat to accepted values/ways of life Put on trial Accused of corrupting youth; disrespecting gods Plato Plato: Philosopher/student of Socrates Distrusted democracy after Socrates death

Set up the Academy in Athens School where taught his own ideas Wrote book: The Republic Ideal society divided into 3 classes: Workers to provide Soldiers to defend Philosophers to rule Aristotle Aristotle: philosopher/student of Plato suspicious of democracy

Favored rule by single, strong, virtuous leader Questioned how ppl should live Good conduct = pursuing the golden mean (btwn the extremes) Thought reason was guiding force of learning Architecture & Art Balance, order, beauty Architecture: Parthenon: temple dedicated to goddess Athena Art:

New natural form of sculpture developed Showed ppl in most perfect, graceful form Only Greek paintings left are on pottery Greek Literature classical style seen as model of perfection Dramas/plays written: moral and social issues

Greatest play writes wrote tragedies Greek comedies: plays mocking ppl/customs Greece: Alexander the Great & the Hellenistic Age UNIT 1: GREECE THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

338 BC Athens fell to Macedonian army Athens & other city-states lost indep new era in Greece led by Alexander the Great Macedonia: Rulers were of Greek origin

Phillip II became ruler in 359 BC Wanted to take over Greece Conquered many Greek city-states THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT All of Greece eventually taken over

Phillip wanted the Persian Empire Assass before he could take action Phillips son Alexander took over THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

Alex wanted to conquer Persia Persian empire not what it used to be Stretched 2,000 miles from Egypt to India Alex took control of most of Persian Empire but wanted more

Went into northern India in 326 BC THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT Died before he could conquer more 32 yrs old; fever Left his empire To the strongest

THE LEGACY Spread Greek culture across Mediterranean & Middle East Founded new cities that were influenced by Greece

Local ppl assimilated (absorbed) Greek ideas & Greek ppl took in local customs Married a Persian woman and adopted Persian culture as well THE LEGACY Alexandria, Egypt

Heart of the Hellenistic world Cultural capital city of Egypt Created new roles for women Royal women had power Cleopatra came to rule in Egypt Women learned to read & write

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