Unit 1 Key Terms Foundations 8000 BCE - 600CE

Unit 1 Key Terms Foundations 8000 BCE - 600CE

8000 B.C.E. 600 C.E. Foundations What were the major

changes/developments in the period 8000 B.C.E. 600 C.E.? 8000 B.C.E. 600 C.E. Major Developments

Neolithic Revolution / Development of Agricultural societies Changes in gender relations due to Neolithic Rev.

Development of major belief systems (all EXCEPT Islam) Major migrations (Bantu, Huns, Germans, Polynesians)

Early Civilizations Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus, Shang, Olmec, Chavin Classical Civilizations (600 B.C.E. 600 C.E.)

China, India, Mediterranean, Mesoamerica Collapse of Classical Empires

What were the major continuities from 8000 BCE 600 CE? Continuities 8000 B.C.E. 600 C.E.

Gatherer-Hunter Societies Nomadic Societies What were the major civilizations

from 8000 B.C.E. 600 B.C.E.? Major Civilizations 8000 B.C.E. 600 B.C.E. Mesopotamia Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Egypt - Nile River Indus Valley (Harrapan) - Indus River Shang - Huang He/Yellow River Mesoamerica: (Olmec No River!)

Andean South America: (Chavin No River!) What were the major civilizations from 600 B.C.E. 600 C.E.?

Major Civilizations 600 B.C.E. 600 C.E. China: Han India: Gupta

Mediterranean: Greek and Roman Mesoamerica: Olmec Must-Know Dates 8000 B.C.E. 600 C.E.

8000 B.C.E. 8000 B.C.E.

Beginnings of Agriculture 3000 B.C.E.

3000 B.C.E. Beginnings of Bronze Age Beginnings of Early Civilizations

1300 B.C.E. 1300 B.C.E. Iron Age

6 Century B.C.E. th

(mostly 500s) th 6

Century B.C.E. Beginnings of . Confucianism (Confucius)

Buddhism (Siddhartha Guatama The Buddha) Taoism (Lao Tsu) 5 Century B.C.E

th (mostly 400s)

5th Century B.C.E Greek Golden Age 323 B.C.E.

323 B.C.E. Alexander the Great

221 B.C.E. 221 B.C.E. Qin unified China

32 C.E. 32 C.E.

Beginnings of Christianity 180 C.E.

180 C.E. End of Pax Romana 220 C.E.

220 C.E. End of Han China

333 C.E. 333 C.E. Roman capital moved to Constantinople

4 Century th

(300s) 4th Century Beginnings of Trans-Saharan Trade Routes

476 C.E. 476 C.E.

Fall of Rome 527 C.E.

527 C.E. Justinian Rule of Byzantine Empire Unit 1 Key Terms

Foundations 8000 BCE 600CE no written documents vs. written proof of

history prehistory vs. history

Old Stone Age Paleolithic Era

Nomadic, small communities and population, economic distribution is more equal

foraging societies nomadic hunters/gatherers

start of agriculture Neolithic Revolution

Live with husbands family Trace through fathers lineage partrilineal/patrilocal

Farming system where animals are taken to different locations in order to find fresh pastures

nomadic pastoralism to look at the world primarily from the perspective of

one's own culture ethnocentrism

Looking for food foraging

process by which people take an area of land to use for agriculture, only to abandon it a short time later

shifting cultivation a region in the Middle East incorporating present-

day Israel, West Bank, and Lebanon and parts of Jordan, Syria, Iraq and south-eastern Turkey.

Fertile Crescent system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians,

using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements. hieroglyphics

group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from the British Isles to Gallatia. Went to war with

Romans. the Celts

United Ancient Greece; Hellenistic Age, conquered a large empire.

Alexander the Great legendary early Greek poet and traditionally credited

with authorship of the major Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey Homer

Along with Plato, he is often considered to be one of the two most influential philosophers in Western

thought. He wrote many books about physics, poetry, zoology, logic, government, and biology. Aristotle

peasants/slaves vs. elite/upper class plebians vs. patricians

series of three wars fought between Rome and the Phoenician city of Carthage

Reason: clash of interests between the expanding Carthaginian and Roman spheres of influence Punic Wars

Roman military and political leader He was instrumental in the transformation of the

Roman Republic into the Roman Empire Dictator for life Julius Caesar

King of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC then became the first emperor of a unified China from 221

BC to 210 BC, ruling under the name First Emperor. Shi Huangdi

dominated Japanese politics during the Heian period. the Fujiwara clan

people of southern and central India and northern Sri Lanka the most well known of these languages are Tamil,

Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam Dravidians

Leader of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC A convert to Buddhism Ashoka

527 - 565 CE the Eastern Roman emperor who tried to restore the

unity of the old Roman Empire He issued the most famous compilation of Roman Law He was unable to maintain a hold in Italy and lost the provinces of north Africa. It was the last effort to restore

the Mediterranean unity Justinian

The social organization created by exchanging grants of lands or fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service

typical of the Zhou Dynasty and the European Middle Ages greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service

feudalism Charles the Great

Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany (800 C.E) He helped restore some church-based education in

western Europe, and the level of intellectual activity began a slow recovering After death, the empire could not survive

Charlemagne Formed by the 8th century by exchanging gold from the

forests of west Africa for salt/dates from the Sahara or for goods from Mediterranean north Africa Camels were introduced By 3rd century C.E., it rose to power by taxing the salt and

gold exchanged within its borders By the 10th century, rulers had converted to Islam and were at its height of power Almoravid armies invaded from north Africa (1076), the

power was declining despite the kingdoms survival new states rose in the 13th century Ghana

Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central American contemporary with Teotihuacn

featured monumental architecture, written language, calendar, mathematical systems, and highly developed religion.

Maya developed in the second millennium BCE in the central

Andes and the central Pacific coast of South America. included the urbanized cultures of Chavin, Moche, Ica-Nazca, Chimu, Tiwanaku, Aymara, Chachapoya and other Pre-Incan cultures

The semi-urbanized Inca conquered greater Peru in the 15th century. Then, in the 16th century, Spain conquered Peru.

Andean societies a Mound-building Native American culture that flourished

in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States in the centuries leading up to European contact began to develop around 900 A.D. in the Mississippi River Valley (for which it is named)

Cultures in the Tennessee River Valley may have also begun to develop similar characteristics at this point Mississippian culture

Native American civilization centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest

United States. Anasazi

Political regime where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth,

military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). oligarchy

form of government in which a religion or faith plays a dominant role

theocracy were not property themselves and could not be sold

apart from the land which they worked Worked on the fields of the privileged land owners in return for protection and the right to work on their leased fields

serfs belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities

polytheism the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the

father of Isaac "Judaism, Christianity, and Islam each has a special claim on him"

Abraham the dispersion of a group of people throughout the

world. Examples: Jewish & African

Diaspora Founder/teacher of Taoism (Daoism)

Laozi record of speeches by Confucius and his disciples,

as well as the discussions they held Analects

Teacher/founder of Confucianism Kung Fu-tzu (Confucius)

blessing of Heaven if a king ruled unwisely, Heaven would be displeased

and would give this to someone else Mandate of Heaven

body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Christianity and Judaism typically considered a fundamental basis for

Western legal codes and moral values Judeo-Christian Tradition

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