Unit 1 Mix Matter & Flow Topic 1 Lab Safety & WHIMS And the Wonderful World of Fluids Lab Safety Lets talk some general lab safety Lab Safety General rules here The Do Nots. Do Not running in the lab
Do Not food in the lab (especially during experiments) Do Not drinks in the lab. (water is OK) Do not taste chemicals or use other lab devices unless told Do not taste anything without permission Do not stick your face above a liquid and inhale Be respectful Always follow directions Let me know if you break something glass for sure! Lets Science! Hazardous Materials
1st Component Shape The shape of the HHS symbol tells you how dangerous a material is Hazardous Materials 2nd Component Picture
The picture tells you what the danger is The above are the most common WHMIS WHMIS stands for Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System
Fancy talk for what dangers/potential dangers a material possesses These are commonly found in the workplace where you would interact with chemicals WHMIS Question Here is a question for you
If you were to get hired at a fast food place, do you think they will make you take a mini WHMIS training course? WHMIS Symbols WHMIS Time for some intense WHMIS and Hazard Symbol Trivia
time for a WHMIS Fun-Sheet! Now that we are safe It is time to talk Fluids! So what is a fluid? Discuss what fluids you see around you right now!
So how do you define a fluid? Anything that has no fixed shape and can flow Usually it is a liquid, or a gas Fluid = Powerful Fluids = Easier To Use Material Fluids move materials, even if they are solids
Slurries A mixture of water and a solid (i.e.:dirt and water) is called a slurry Slurry technology Slurries are very useful in industry One of these is mining in the Oil Sands Syncrude originally used conveyor belts to move the oil sand from the mine to the processing plant, but found it was too expensive It is now pumped to the plant by way of a slurry pipeline Fluids There Is More?!
Fluids Become Solids Fluids take the shape of their containers Many solid materials are originally prepared as fluids I.e.: Glass, Steel and concrete are examples Where the solids are processed as liquids to shape them easier, so then they cool or dry
as a solid they are in the form they should be Even More Fluids! Fluids Can Hold Other Materials The ability of fluids to flow and carry other materials makes them useful in many different ways. Applications Toothpaste has a binder
(which is made from wood pulp) that keeps all of the ingredients together. Unit 1 Mix Matter & Flow Topic 2 Properties of Fluids & A Whole Lotta Science Fun! Substance vs. Mixture All pure substances have their own unique set of properties or characteristics
All mixtures contain two or more pure substances which have their own distinct properties (some of which may be hidden) Break it down (pg.20) Break it down more Matter Everything! (Essentially anything that takes up space)
Mixture Combination of two, or more, pure substances Mechanical Mixture You can see the different substances that make up the mixture (i.e.: mixed vegetables) A.K.A.
Heterogeneous Mixture Break it down even more Mixtures where you cannot see the different parts are called homogeneous mixtures Solutions Looks as if it is all one substance
Suspensions Cloudy mixture in which droplets or tiny pieces of one substance are held within another If you let it settle out you will see the pieces begin to separate out Break it down to the end Colloids Also a cloudy mixture Difference? The droplets or tiny pieces are so small that they do not separate out easily
(i.e.: Homogenized milk actually tiny cream droplets in whey) Delicious! Activity Time! Time to see if you get this at all Fluid Pop Milk Water
Vinegar Apple Juice Windshiel d Washer Fluid Pure Substanc es Heterogeno us Solution
Suspensio n Colloid Activity Time (Part 2)! Time to see if you get this at all Fluid Styrofoam Juice in
box that you must shake. Salt Sugar Air Ketchup Pure Substanc es Heterogeno us
Solution Suspensio n Colloid Paper Chromatography What is that? A paper chromatography test can be used to
determine if a substance is pure or a solution A filter paper is placed partially in a solution if the fluid moves up to only one level it is a pure substance If it moves up to multiple levels showing each substance, then it is a solution Paper Chromatography Chromatogram?
The filter paper used for this test is called a chromatogram Coffee filters will work just fine for this as well What colour is black?
Time to see what colour(s) black is actually made up of if at all! Mini Experiment time! Concentration & Solubility Forming a solution by mixing two or more materials together is called dissolving The solute is the substance that dissolves in a solvent
The solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution Soluble means to be able to be dissolved in a particular solvent Solutes and solvents can be gases or liquids How does it work? Solution Solute Solvent
Dilution This is a term you may have heard before What does it mean? Concentrated solutions have tons of solute compared to solvent while diluted solutions have tons of solvent compared to solute When you add a concentrated solute to a
solvent you are diluting that solute (adding more solvent) This is my juice making face! Dilution Example Video Fun Measuring Concentration
Concentration is the exact measurement of how much something is in something else Example? 50 g 100 ml 50g/100ml Calculating Concentration
Before I explain let me test you Find a partner and tell me which of the following solutions has the highest concentration 6g in 25ml 15g in 100ml 10g in 50ml Comparing Concentrations
In order to compare concentrations you need the same amount of solvent! Example: 10g / 50ml vs 25g in 100ml Keep it simple bring 50ml to 100 by x2 20g in 100ml now and 25g in 100ml
Which is more concentrated? Go back and try the previous question with this new information! Saturated vs. Unsaturated As you add a solute to a solvent it will begin to dissolve in to the solvent As long as the solute keeps dissolving the solution is unsaturated that is to say it has room for the solute in it!
If you kept adding the solute into the solution until it could no longer be dissolved then you would have a saturated solution that is to say nothing more can be dissolved in it Unsaturated vs. Saturated How about a picture representation? Saturated Unsaturate
Solubility Now, there is a catch to this! Saturation is directly related to the temperature of the solvent why? So every solution has a different saturation point at any given temperature! Factors Affecting Solubility
The most common solvent in the world is water No, no Mr. Meme water not coconut water. In conclusion coconut water is gross
What the?! Factors Affecting Solubility Back to it regular ol water is the universal solvent Life tip: If you see Aqueous Solution on a label it means water is the solvent because Aqua is Latin for water)
Remember our conversation on fluids? Solutions are not always a liquid Whoa! Solute Solvent Solution Gas Gas Air
Gas Liquid Soda Water (Oxygen & Gases in Nitrogen) (CO2 in Water) Liquid Liquid
Antifreeze (Ethylene Glycol in Water) Liquid Solid Rubber Cement (Benzene in Rubber) Solid Liquid Seawater
(Salt in Water) Solid Solid Brass (Zinc in Copper) Things That Make Me Laugh Solubility & Temperature
For most substances, solubility increases as the temperature increases Ex: At 25oC you can dissolve 36.2g of salt in 100mL of water but at 100oC you can dissolve 39.2g Interestingly enough the Opposite is true for gasses! As temperature increases the solubility of a gas in a liquid solvent decreases
Why does this matter? Thermal Pollution Many industrial plants use water as a coolant and usually this water comes from nearby lakes or rivers The water gets hotter as it is used by the plant and before it is returned to the original water source it is to be cooled in a cooling pond Do you think this always happens?
Heck no! Thermal Pollution: Part Two If water temperature increases its ability to carry gasses decreases Ex: Hotter water = less oxygen Life Tip: Oxygen is important!
Essentially aquatic life could drown in water?! WHAT?! Particle Model & Behaviours 1. Particle Model of Matter The 4 Points!
All matter is made up of tiny particles and different substances are made of different particles 1 700000000000000000 One thousand seven hundred million million million! Particle Model & Behaviours The 4 Points
Particle Model & Behaviours Particle Model of Matter The 4 Points! 1. The tiny particles are always moving - Solid Wiggle in 1 place - Liquid Sliding around over each other - Gas Moving as far as the space will allow You know what to do if
youre a solid object! Wiggle Wiggle Wiggle!! Slide right meow Liquid Just like a Gas
Particle Model & Behaviours 1. Particle Model of Matter The 4 Points! The particles in matter may be attracted to each other or bonded together - Ex: Water has more attraction to salt I love you! #Awkward
Back off bro shes mine! Particle Model & Behaviours 1. Particle Model of Matter The 4 Points! The particles have spaces between them! Do you even surf bro!?
Double back Looking back at the water & rubbing alcohol problem can you explain it? Did you figure it out? Particle Model & Mixing
Water & Rubbing Alcohol are different this means they are made up of different particles or different sizes! The smaller particles take up the space between the larger particles like this! Particle Model & Mixing Cont This model also explains why substances dissolve!
Particles of one substance can/are more attracted to particles in other substances When I put sugar in water the sugar was more attracted to the water particles and went to hang out. Sugar loves water and so it breaks up to split up and hang out with all of the different water molecules.
This is the science behind dissolving! Particle Model & Mixing Cont When you add sand to water, the sand does NOT dissolve. Why? Because sand hates water. The sand particles do not want to break apart to go hang out with the water particles. Instead they huddle together and support one another from their evil enemy.water. Hold me Tight!
Rate of Dissolving There are 3 major ways you can affect the rate of dissolving that occurs in a solution 1) Temperature Particles of the solvent are moving faster and they bump into the solute particles faster Rate of Dissolving
There are 3 major ways you can affect the rate of dissolving that occurs in a solution 2) Size of Particles Small pieces dissolve quickly compared to larger pieces because there is more surface area for the solvent to work with! FAIL!
Rate of Dissolving There are 3 major ways you can affect the rate of dissolving that occurs in a solution 3) Stirring Stirring the particles moves them around and the solvent particles bump into them
Saturation Graphs Now, let me test you What is the maximum amount of sodium acetate that can dissolve in 100g of water that is at: 750C? 250C? 50 C? What happens to the solubility of sodium acetate as the temperature of
water increases? Now, let me test you What happens if you try to dissolve 100g of sodium acetate in 100g of water at: 750C? 250C? 5oC? Which of the mixtures above are supersaturated and which is unsaturated?
Game on Thats 2 Topics down Remember education is important!!
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