Unit 2 - Centennial School District

Unit 2 Chemical Basis for Life Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology Section Section Section Section (p. 148-155)

171) 1: 2: 3: 4: Atoms, Elements, & Compounds Chemical Reactions Water & Solutions

(p. 156-160) (p. 161-165) The Building Blocks of Life (p. 166- Section 1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

Objectives Living things consist of atoms of different elements Ions form when atoms gain or lose electrons Atoms share pairs of electrons in covalent bonds The atom The _______ is the smallest basic unit of _______________ Atoms are very small The atom

There are ____________ parts of a an atom Subatomic particle Proton Neutron Electron Charge Location

Positive Neutral Negative Nucleus Nucleus Surrounding nucleus Elements

An _________is one particular type of atom, and it cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means Gold Aluminum Helium Key Elements In biology, there are SIX very important elements

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Sulfur Nitrogen

N S P O CH How are elements different The number of protons determines the __________of an element Carbon: 6 protons Oxygen: 8 protons

The number of electrons determines the _________of an element Carbon: 6 electrons, 4 on OUTSIDE Oxygen: 8 electrons, 6 on OUTSIDE Carbon diagrams Lonely Atoms Atoms rarely are found _____________in nature They will do ANYTHING to get to ____electrons on the outside Steal Dump

Share Compounds A ____________is a substance made of atoms of different elements bonded together Result of sharing, stealing, or dumping electrons Atoms bonded in a specific ratio Carbon Compounds (more about this later) Carbon can form many various bonds to form

Carbohydrates _____________ Nucleic acids _____________ Ionic Bond

_________bonds are formed through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions Opposites attract! Ex: Salt aka sodium chloride (NaCl) Positive sodium (Na+) Negative chloride (Cl-) NaCl ionic bond Ions

________are atoms that have gained or lost one or more electrons. Results in a change in electrical charge Gain e Lose e- becomes ______________ becomes ______________ Ions, cont. Very important to organisms Hydrogen ions (H+) needed to produce chemical energy in cells Calcium ions (Ca2+) needed for all muscle movement in your body

Chloride ions (Cl-) needed for many chemical signals in the brain Covalent Bond Not all atoms easily gain or lose their electrons! Some atoms share their electrons instead! ___________Bond: forms when atoms share a pair of electrons Usually a very strong bond Atoms may have several covalent bonds to share several electrons H2O covalent bond

CO2 covalent bond Covalent Bond, cont. ____________: two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds Ex: carbon dioxide (CO2) Carbon atoms needs 4 electrons to fill outer level, oxygen needs two Carbon shares with 2 oxygen! Ionic Bonds

Covalent Bonds Review What are atoms? How are the particles that make up atoms diagrammed? What are the similarities between covalent and ionic bonds? Section 2 Chemical Reactions

Objectives Bonds break and form during chemical reactions. Chemical reactions release or absorb energy. Evidence of a chemical reaction _______________change Formation of a solid (precipitate)

Color change (sometimes) Odor (sometimes) Formation of _____________ CHEMICAL REACTIONS Bonds break & form during chemical reactions Plant/Animal cells break down sugars to get usable

energy Cells build protein molecules by bonding amino acids together Chemical reactions change substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical ______________ CHEMICAL REACTIONS

___________are the substance changed during a chemical reactions Oxygen (O2) & Glucose (C6H12O6) _________are the substances made by a chemical reaction Carbon Dioxide (CO2) & Water (H2O)

6O2 + C6H12O6 Reactants 6CO2 + 6H2O Products ITS ALL ABOUT THE ENERGY Energy is needed to break bonds in molecules Bond energy is the amount of energy that will break a

bond between two atoms. Every atom has different bond energy A SPECIFIC amount of energy is needed to break bonds in an oxygen molecule

A SPECIFIC amount of energy is needed to break bonds in a glucose molecule Energy is released when bonds are formed The amount of energy released is equal to the energy that breaks the same bond Energy needed to break apart water molecule = energy released when hydrogen & oxygen atoms bond to form a

water molecule CHEMICAL REACTIONS All chemical reactions involve changes in ___________ Energy added to the reactants breaks their chemical bonds When new bonds form in the products, energy is released

Energy is both absorbed and _______during a chemical reaction! Some release more energy than they absorb (Generous) Some absorb more energy than they release (Greedy) CHEMICAL REACTIONS, CONT. Generous chemical RXNs that release more energy than they absorb

= ______________reaction Excess energy is the difference in bond energy between the reactants and products Excess energy is often released as heat or light Cellular respiration releases usable energy for your cells & heat! CHEMICAL REACTIONS,

CONT. Greedy chemical RXNs that absorb more energy than they release = _______________reaction In photosynthesis, plants absorb energy from sunlight and use that to make sugars and carbohydrates

Exothermic VS. Endothermic graphs But how does a rxn start? Some energy must first be absorbed by the reactants in ANY chemical reaction The amount of energy needed will vary _________energy is the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start Push a rock up a hill

Catalysts & Enzymes A ________is a substance that lowers the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction. Special proteins called _______are the biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in biological processes. Review What are the parts of a chemical reaction? How can energy changes be related to chemical reactions? What is the importance of enzymes in living organisms?

Section 3 Water and Solutions Objectives Life depends on hydrogen bonds in water. Many compounds dissolve in water. Some compounds form acids or bases. THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER

Organisms bodies, (their _____________), are made up of mostly ____________________ The water in cells gives the cell _______________ and ___________________ materials within organisms. All of the processes necessary for an organisms life take place within the ______________________________ of the cell PROPERTIES RELATED TO HYDROGEN BONDS

1. ______________________ 2. ______________________ 3. ______________________ Negative Charge HYDROGEN BONDS O

Water is a ______________ molecule Form when atoms in a molecule have ____________ pulls on the _____________ they share. H Positive Charge Opposite charges of polar molecules can interact to form ____________________ bonds.

An attraction between a slightly _______________ hydrogen atom and a slightly ______________ atom. (Usually _______________________________) Hydrogen bonds are part of the structures of _______________ and of ______________

H Positive Charge Shared Electrons COHESION Cohesion: the attraction among __________________ of the same substance. Cohesion from hydrogen bonds makes

water molecules _____________________. Cohesion produces __________________, ( skin on water ) ADHESION Adhesion: the attraction among __________________ of ______________ substances. For example, water molecules stick to other things. Water in a test tube, (water is attracted

to the ____________) ? Materials such as ________________ and ____________ cannot be transported form one part of an organism to another unless they are dissolved in blood, plant sap, or

other water based fluids. MOLECULES DISSOLVE IN WATER ______________: Mixture of a substance that is the same throughout. ___________: Substance that is present in the greater amount and

dissolves another substance. ___________: Substance that dissolves in a solvent. Mixtures ____________________ ____________________

A mixture with easily separated parts with their distinct properties A mixture that it the SAME throughout and hard to tell individual characteristics ACIDS AND BASES Some compounds form ______________ or _____________ because they _______________ into _______________

when they dissolve in ___________. BASE: Compounds that remove H+ ions ACID: Compounds that release a proton

from a solution - a hydrogen ion(H+) when it dissolves in water

p a so More basic More acidic neutral Review How does the structure of water make it a good solvent?

What are the similarities and differences between solutions and suspensions? What are the differences between acids and bases? Section 4 The Building Blocks of Life Objectives Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things.

BUILDING BLOCKS OF CELLS P ____________________ R L ____________________ ____________________ O I C ____________________ T P A

A ____________________ N E I R T P A I D B N

CARBOHYDRATES _______________are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Include sugars & starches Can be broken down to provide useable energy for cells Major part of plant cell structure

The most basic carbs are simple sugars, monosaccharides Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides CARBOHYDRATES USED BY CELLS FOR __________ ___________ AND __________ ____________.

SIMPLE CARBS = _______________________________ COMPLEX CARBS = _____________________________ _____________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ PROTEINS Proteins are the most varied of the carbon-based molecules in organisms Have a role in movement, eyesight, digestion, etc.

A _______________is a polymer made of monomers called amino acids __________are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur Organisms use 20 different amino acids to build proteins The body makes 12 of the 20, the other 8 come from food

PROTEIN MAKE UP _________________. INVOLVED IN ALL _______ ____________. BUILDING BLOCKS = _________ __________. _________________= TYPE OF PROTEIN THAT STARTS AND SPEEDS UP CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN CELLS. LIPIDS

_______are nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils, and cholesterol Contain chains of carbon bonded to oxygen & hydrogen Some broken down for useable energy Others are part of a cells structure Fatty acids are chains of carbon atoms bonded to

hydrogen atoms. Saturated fatty acids have single carbon-carbon bonds Unsaturated fatty acids have double carbon-carbon bonds LIPIDS DONT MIX WITH ______________. PHOSPHOLIPIDS MAKE UP ________ ______________. FATS AND OILS THAT _________ ___________. ORGANISMS USE FATS AND OILS WHEN THEY HAVE

USED UP ___________________. _________- SOLID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. _________- LIQUID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. ATP MAJOR ___________ ___________ MOLECULE IN CELL. ENERGY IN __________________ AND __________ AND _____________________ MUST BE TRANSFERRED TO ATP IN CELL TO BE USED.

NUCLEIC ACIDS Detailed instructions to build proteins are stored in extremely long carbon-based molecules called nucleic acids Nucleic acids are polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotides

Nucleic acids differ from the other carbon-based molecules The others have a large # of functions Nucleic acids have just 1 function make proteins DNA stores info for putting amino acids together to make proteins RNA helps to build proteins

NUCLEIC ACIDS HAVE ALL INFO NEEDED TO MAKE __________. _______________ OF LIFE. BUILDING BLOCKS OF _____________. TWO TYPES: ________ AND _______. MONOMER & POLYMER

Each subunit of a complete carbonbased molecule is called a _________ A polymer is a large molecule, or macromolecule, made of many monomers bonded together Monomers of a polymer may be the same (ex. Starches) Or different (proteins)

COMPOUND BUILDING BLOCK (POLYMER) (MONOMER) PROTEIN

AMINO ACID LIPID (FAT) FATTY ACID CARBOHYDRATE SUGARS NUCLEIC ACIDS

NUCLEOTIDE Review What is the role of carbon in living organisms? What are the four major families of biological macromolecules? What are the functions of each group of biological macromolecules?

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