Unit 5 Bonding and Nomenclature

Unit 5 Bonding and Nomenclature

lithium nitrate lead (II) sulfide lithium nitride barium sulfide lithium nitrite Chemistry sulfur dioxide Unit 5: Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature NaClO3 NO2 Fe(ClO3)2 N2O4 Fe(ClO3)3 N2O5 Bonding Types 1. Ionic Bonding with ions (+/- charges) atoms gaining/losing eM + NM 2. Covalent Bonding

atoms sharing eNM + NM 3. Metallic Bonding metals share e- freely sea of e- good conductors Chemical Bonding Ionic Bonds: atoms give up or gain e and are attracted to each other by coulombic attraction Na loses e Na+ Na+ + Cl Cl gains e NaCl ionic compounds = salts K+ + NO3 KNO3 Cl ionic bonds: M + NM cation + anion where NO3 is a polyatomic ion:

a charged group of atoms that stay together Common Polyatomic Ions Names of Common Polyatomic Ions Ion Name Ion NH4 + *NO2 NO3 *SO3 2SO4 2HSO4OH CN C2H3O2MnO4 PO4 3*PO3 3H2PO4 - ammonium CO3 2carbonate *nitrite HCO3 bicarbonate nitrate *IO3*iodate *sulfite *IO4*periodate sulfate *ClO *hypochlorite hydrogen sulfate *ClO2 *chlorite hydroxide ClO3 chlorate cyanide *ClO4 *perchlorate acetate *BrO3*bromate permanganate C2O42oxalate phosphate Cr2O7 2dichromate *phosphite CrO4 2chromate dihydrogen phosphate O2 2peroxide

Memorize the BOLD ions Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 100 Name * = you will also be responsible for knowing these Polyatomic Ion Trends *Charges NEVER change between different forms +1 oxygen Per____ate Normal ate form -1 oxygen -ite form -2 oxygens hypo___ite BrO4- BrO3bromate BrO2- BrO- bromite hypobromite ClO4- ClO3chlorate ClO2- ClO-

perbromate perchlorate IO4periodate chlorite hypochlorite IO2- IO- IO3 iodate iodite NO3 nitrate nitrite CO32carbonate carbonite SO42sulfate sulfite PO43phosphate phosphite - - NO2CO22SO32PO33-

hypoiodite Properties of Ionic Salts 1. very hard each ion is bonded to several oppositely charged ions 2. high melting points 3. brittle many bonds must be broken with sufficient force, like atoms are brought next to each other and repel calcite Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds chemical formula: has neutral charge; shows types of atoms and how many of each To write an ionic compounds formula, we need: 1. the two types of ions (i.e., cations and anions) 2. the charge on each ion Na+ and F NaF Ba2+ and

O2 BaO Na+ and O2 Na2O Ba2+ and F BaF2 K+ e- e- potassium atom BrBr bromine atom bromide ion potassium potassium ion bromide Notice that the pink pieces are cations (metals) and the

blue are anions (non-metals) KBr Br Mg 2+ Br 1 Mg2+ 2 Br - MgBr2 magnesium bromide K+ O2K+ potassium oxide K2O Chemical Bonding Activity Examples N3- Na OH + 1 Na + Pb4+ - 1 OH N3-

- N3- Pb4+ NaOH Pb4+ OH Mg N3- 2+ OH - 1 Mg2+ 2 OH - Mg OH 2 Pb4+ Pb3N4 N3Pb4+ N3- criss-cross rule: charge on cation / anion becomes subscript of anion / cation ** Warning: Reduce to lowest terms Al3+ and O2 Ba2+ and S2 In3+ and Br1

Al 2 O 3 Ba 2S 2 In 1 Br 3 Al2O3 BaS InBr3 Writing Formulas w/Polyatomic Ions Parentheses are required only when you need more than one bunch of a particular polyatomic ion Ba2+ and SO42 BaSO4 Mg2+ and NO2 Mg(NO2)2 NH4+ and ClO3 NH4ClO3 Sn4+ and

SO42 Sn(SO4)2 Fe3+ and Cr2O72 Fe2(Cr2O7)3 N3 (NH4)3N NH4+ and The Importance of Parentheses Calcium hydroxide ide Ca2+ OH- CaOH2 Ca - O H H vs. Ca(OH)2 HO - Ca - OH The formulas imply two totally different compounds! Charges Reminder!

1+ 2+ Group 1: Group 2: Group 3: Group 5: Group 6: Group 7: Group 8: 1+ 2+ 3+ 3 2 1 0 0 3+ 3 2 1 Inorganic Nomenclature potassium nitrate KNO3 copper (II) sulfate CuSO4 dinitrogen monoxide N2O sodium hydroxide NaOH

Nomenclature - Humor Fe2+ Fe2+ Fe2+ Fe2+ Fe2+ Fe2+ Fe2+ Fe2+ Ferrous Wheel Fe = iron (Latin = ferrum) Fe2+ = lower oxidation state = ferrous Fe3+ = higher oxidation state = ferric BaNa2 BaNaNa What weapon can you make from the elements nickel, potassium and iron? A KNiFe Teacher: What is the formula for water? Student: H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O Teacher: Thats not what I taught you. Student: But you said the formula for water wasH to O. "H-O-H"?! WHAT'S THAT SPELL?! mis

WATER? Little Johnny took a drink, Now he shall drink no more. For what he thought was H2O, Was H2SO4. Under aged Pb walks into a bar and the bartender turns to the gold Bouncer and says, Au, get the lead out! Perhaps one of you gentlemen would mind telling me just what is outside the window that you find so attractive..? courtesy NearingZero.net Ionic Compounds (cation/anion combos) Fixed-Charge Cations with Elemental Anions i.e., pulled off the The fixed-charge cations are: Table anions groups 1, 2, 13, Ag+ and Zn2+ 1+ 2+ 3+ 3 2 1 Fixed-Charge Exceptions Start with Al 3+ Go backwards down the stairs Decrease the charge after each stair Al 13 2+ Zn 30

Ag 47 + 3+ Fixed-charge cations Variable-charge cations Elemental anions 1+ 1 H 1 2 3 7 2 3- 2- 1- B C N O F Ne 3 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 Al Si P S Cl Ar 13 14 15 16 17 18 Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

Na Mg K 12 Ca Sc Ti V Cr 24 Mn Fe Co Ni 20 21 22 23 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc 39 40 41 42 Hf

Ta W 72 73 74 Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt 104 105 37 6 1 Be 19 5 3+ He Li 11 4

2+ H 38 Cs Ba 55 56 Fr Ra 87 88 * W 106 La Ce Pr 57 58 59 Ac Th Pa 89 90 91 25

43 26 107 28 29 30 31 Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In 44 Re Os 75 27 76 108 45 46 Ir Pt 77 78 47 48

49 Au Hg Tl 79 80 81 32 33 Sn Sb Te 50 51 Pb Bi 82 83 U 92 61 62 63 64 65 66 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf 93

52 35 36 I Xe 53 54 Po At 84 85 Rn 86 109 Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er 60 34 94 95 96 97 98 67

68 Tm Yb Lu 69 70 71 Es Fm Md No Lr 99 100 101 102 103 1+ Na 2+ 3+ 3 2 1 A. To name, given the formula: Ba 1. Use name of cation 2. Use name of anion (it has the ending ide) NaF sodium fluoride BaO

barium oxide Na2O sodium oxide BaF2 barium fluoride Ca Zn 1+ 2+ 3+ Ag 3 2 1 B. To write formula, given the name: 1. Write symbols for the two types of ions 2. Balance charges to write formula silver sulfide Ag+ S2 Ag2S zinc phosphide Zn2+ P3

Zn3P2 calcium iodide Ca2+ I CaI2 Variable-Charge Cations with Elemental Anions i.e., pulled off the Table anions The variable-charge cations are: Pb, Sn, and the transition metals (but of course! not Ag or Zn) A. To name, given the formula: 1. Figure out charge on cation. 2. Write name of cation. 3. Write Roman numerals in ( ) to show cations charge. 4. Write name of anion. -6 Fe Cu Stock System of nomenclature FeO iron Fe?2+ oxide O2

Fe2O3 iron Fe?3+ oxide Fe?3+ O2 O2 O2 iron (III) oxide CuBr copper Cu+? Brbromide copper (I) bromide CuBr2 copper Cu?2+ Brbromide Br copper (II) bromide iron (II) oxide B. To find the formula, given the name: 1. Write symbols for the two types of ions. 2. Balance charges to write formula. Co Sn cobalt (III) chloride Co3+ Cl CoCl3 tin (IV) oxide Sn4+

O2 SnO2 tin (II) oxide Sn2+ O2 SnO Ionic Nomenclature Practice 1. sodium hydroxide NaOH 2. HgSO4 9. iron (III) oxide Fe2O3 mercury (II) sulfate 10. Mg(NO ) 3 2 magnesium nitrate 3. lead (II) phosphate 11. calcium sulfide 4. (NH4)2S 12. K2O Pb3(PO4)2 ammonium sulfide 5. aluminum chlorate Al(ClO3)3 CaS

potassium oxide 13. magnesium chloride MgCl2 6. Cu2CO3 copper (I) carbonate 14. Cr2O 3 chromium (III) oxide 7. manganese (IV) oxide MnO 2 15. gold (III) bromide AuBr 3 8. MnSO4 manganese (II) sulfate 16. Zn(NO2)2 zinc nitrite Traditional System of Nomenclature used historically (and still some today) to name compounds w/multiple-charge cations To use:1. Use Latin root of cation. 2. Use -ic ending for higher charge; -ous ending for lower charge. 3. Then say name of anion, as usual. ous gold, Au aurAu3+ Au+ lead, Pb plumbPb4+ Pb2+ tin, Sn stannSn4+ Sn2+

copper, Cu cuprCu2+ Cu+ 3+ Write formulas: names: iron, Fe ferr- Write Fe ? P3 Pb4+ Pb3P4 cuprous Fe2+ sulfide plumbic phosphide Cu2S Cu+ S2 Pb?2+ P3 Pb3P2 auric nitride plumbous phosphide Au3+ N3AuN ferrous fluoride FeF2 Fe2+ F SnCl4 Sn?4+ Cl Sn stannic chloride Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions Insert name of ion where it should go in the compounds name. Write formulas: iron (III) nitrite Fe3+ NO2 Fe(NO2)3

ammonium phosphide NH4+ P3 (NH4)3P ammonium chlorate NH4+ ClO3 NH4ClO3 zinc phosphate Zn2+ PO43 Zn3(PO4)2 lead (II) permanganate Pb2+ MnO4 Pb(MnO4)2 Write names: (NH4)2S2O3 ammonium thiosulfate AgBrO3 silver bromate (NH4)3N ammonium nitride CrO42 U(CrO4)3 uranium (VI) chromate U?6+ CrO42 CrO42 Cr2(SO3)3 Cr?3+ SO32 chromium (III) sulfite Cr?3+ SO32 SO32

Self-Test Quiz 1. lithium nitrate 2. lithium nitride 3. lithium nitrite 4. NaClO3 5. Fe(ClO3)2 6. Fe(ClO3)3 7. lead(II) sulfide 8. barium sulfide 9. Never show charges in a compounds formula. (T/F) 10. When writing names with Group 9 cations, you need to use Roman numerals. (T/F) 11. When using an anion off the polyatomic ion sheet, change names ending to -ide. (T/F) 12. A Roman numeral indicates the charge on the anion. (T/F) Self-Test Quiz Answers 1. lithium nitrate LiNO3 2. lithium nitride Li3N 3. lithium nitrite LiNO2 4. NaClO3 sodium chlorate 5. Fe(ClO3)2

iron(II) chlorate 6. Fe(ClO3)3 iron(III) chlorate 7. lead(II) sulfide PbS 8. barium sulfide BaS Self-Test Quiz Answers T 9. Never show charges in a compounds formula. T 10. When writing names with Group 9 cations, you need to use Roman numerals. 11. When using an anion off the polyatomic ion sheet, change the names ending to -ide. F F 12. A Roman numeral indicates the charge on the anion. Covalent Bonds (2 nonmetals) atoms share e to get a full valence shell C 1s2 2s2 2p2

4 valence eF 1s2 2s2 2p5 7 valence eBoth need 8 valence e- for a full outer shell otherwise known as the octet rule o o Co xx o x x F xx x Draw the Lewis dot structure for the following elements: Si 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 4 valence e- O 1s2 2s2 2p4 6 valence e- P 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 5 valence e-

B 1s2 2s2 2p1 3 valence e- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 8 valence e- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p5 7 valence e- Ar Br Notice any trends? Drawing Lewis Structures a model of a covalent molecule Lewis structure: that shows all of the valence e 1. Two shared e make a single covalent bond, four make a double bond, etc. 2. unshared pairs: pairs of unbonded valence e 3. Each atom needs a full outer shell, i.e., 8 e . Exception: H needs 2 e Lets bond two F atoms together Each F has 7 v.e. and each needs 1 more eF F F F F2 Now lets bond C and F atoms together carbon tetrafluoride (CF4)

F F C F F F F C F F And now, a video break nitrogen triiodide (NI3) o x x o o N o o x x x x o o I N o x x o x

x x x o x x x I x x x x x I x x x x x x x x Ix x x x Ix x x x x

x x x x x I carbon dioxide (CO2) o o x x o C o x x xx Ox x xx Ox x x x x x Ox x

o o o C o x xx Ox x x xx xx O =C=O xx xx covalent compounds = molecular compounds -- have lower melting points than do ionic compounds (consist of two or more nonmetal elements) butter Dihydrogen Monoxide: A Tale of Danger and Irresponsibility major component of acid rain found in all cancer cells inhalation can be deadly

excessive ingestion results in acute physical symptoms: e.g., frequent urination, bloated sensation, profuse sweating often an industrial byproduct of chemical reactions; dumped wholesale into rivers and lakes Covalent Compounds -- contain two types of nonmetals ** Key: FORGET CHARGES! Use Greek prefixes to indicate how What to do: many atoms of each element, but dont use mono on first element. 1 mono 2 di 3 tri 6 hexa 7 hepta 8 octa 4 tetra 5 penta 9 nona 10 deca EXAMPLES: carbon dioxide CO2 CO dinitrogen trioxide carbon monoxide

N2O3 N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide carbon tetrachloride CCl4 NI3 nitrogen triiodide Metallic Bonds In metals, valence shells of atoms overlap, so v.e are free to travel between atoms through material. In insulators (like wood), the v.e are attached to particular atoms. Not so in metals. Properties of Metals ductile malleable conduct heat and electricity All due to free-moving v.e. Other Types of Forces/Attractions dipole-dipole forces hydrogen bonds London dispersion forces ion-dipole forces

boiling H2O DNA These are much weaker than ionic, covalent, or metallic bonds, but very important in determining states of matter, boiling and melting points, and molecular shape (among other things). Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula lowest-terms formula shows the true number and type of atoms in a mcule Compound Molecular Formula Empirical Formula glucose C6H12O6 CH2O propane C3H8 C3H8 butane C4H10

C2H5 naphthalene C10H8 C5H4 sucrose C12H22O11 C12H22O11 octane C8H18 C4H9 Nomenclature Review Flow Chart Formula Name? Metal + Nonmetal? (Including NH4+) Ionic d,f-block Pb,Sn Metal Type? Columns 1, 2, 13 Ag+, Zn2+ Variable Fixed

Two Nonmetals? Covalent Steps 1 & 4 ONLY 1. Write name of cation (metal) 2. Determine the charge on the metal by balancing the (-) charge from the anion 3. Write the charge of the metal in Roman Numerals and put in parentheses 4. Write name of anion (Individual anions need ide ending!) Use Prefixes! *Mono* Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Deca Add ide to 2nd element Name Formula? No Prefixes? Ionic 1. Determine the ions present and the charge on each (Roman Numeral = cation charge, otherwise use PT) 2. Balance formula (criss-cross) 3. Reduce subscripts (if needed)

Prefixes? Covalent 1. FORGET CHARGES!!! 2. Use prefixes to determine subscripts 3. Do NOT reduce subscripts! Covalent Ionic Compounds Two nonmetals Variable-charge cation carbon sulfurN tetrabromide dichloride NCl 2O35 niobium vanadium Mn Pt(IO (V) (II) perchlorate )4 2S 53chromate Greek prefixes Charge CrissCross Rule

Roman numeral Fixed-charge rubidium sulfate NH4KI ClO barium oxide 3 Roman numeral for name only Roman numeral Dont know the charge from Know the charge from PT Polyatomic ions OK PT Polyatomic ions OK Where would you file this? VCrO4 dinitrogen pentoxide BaO platinum (IV) iodate CBr4 ammonium chlorate Nb(ClO4)5 potassium iodide SCl2

nitrogen trichloride Rb2SO4 manganese (V) sulfide Overall Nomenclature Practice Ionic/variable Ir F3 iridium (III) fluoride Ca S calcium sulfide Ti S2 titanium (IV) sulfide HCl(aq) Ba Br hydrochloric acid Acid barium bromide Ionic/fixed N3P trinitrogen diphosphide Covalent 2 2

HF(aq) Zn I 2 N Cl4 Au 2 O3 Na 3P hydrofluoric acid Ionic/fixed Ionic/variable Acid zinc iodide Ionic/fixed nitrogen tetrachloride Covalent gold (III) oxide sodium phosphide Ionic/variable Ionic/fixed Ionic Nomenclature Practice Ir2 (Cr2O7)3 iridium (III) dichromate Ca (OH)2 calcium hydroxide

H NO3 (aq) nitric acid Pt (CH COO) 3 2 H BrO (aq) platinum (II) acetate Sr K 2 SO4 CN Zn (NO2)2 Mn (ClO3)4 Au PO4 H2 SO3 (aq) bromous acid Ionic/variable Ionic/fixed Acid Ionic/variable Acid strontium sulfate Ionic/fixed

potassium cyanide Ionic/fixed zinc nitrite Ionic/fixed manganese (IV) chlorate Ionic/variable gold (III) phosphate Ionic/variable sulfurous acid Acid Write the compound formed by the following ions: 1) Al3+ S22) Mg2+ PO43- When a formula is givenwrite the proper name. When a name is givenwrite the proper formula. 3) BaO 4) lithium bromide 5) Ni2S3 6) triphosphorus heptoxide 7) N2O5 8) molybdenum (VI)make nitride Write the total number of atoms that up each compound. 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT) CH3C6H2(NO2)3 Extra credit: What10) is the

formula for plumbic phosphoric acid H3PO4 iodide? (Hint: lead is Pb2+ or Pb4+) Write the compound formed by the following ions: 1) Al3+ S22) Mg2+ PO43- When a formula is givenwrite the proper name. When a name is givenwrite the proper formula. 3) BaO POP QUIZ 4) lithium bromide 5) Ni2S3 6) triphosphorus heptoxide 7) N2O5 8) molybdenum (VI)make nitride Write the total number of atoms that up each compound. 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT) CH3C6H2(NO2)3 Extra credit: What10) is the formula for plumbic phosphoric acid H3PO4 iodide? (Hint: lead is Pb2+ or Pb4+) Answer Key Al2S3

Write the compound formed by the following ions: 1) Al3+ S22) Mg2+ Mg3(PO4)2 PO43- When a formula is givenwrite the proper name. When a name is givenwrite the proper formula. 3) BaO barium oxide LiBr 4) lithium bromide nickel (III) sulfide 5) Ni2S3 6) triphosphorus heptoxide P3O7 dinitrogen pentoxide 7) N2O5 8) molybdenum (VI)make nitride Write the total number of atoms that up each compound. 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT) CH3C6H2(NO2)3 MoN2 21 8 Extra credit: What10) is the formula for

plumbic phosphoric acid H3PO4 iodide? (Hint: lead is Pb2+ or Pb4+) PbI4 Writing Chemical Names Use poly. Formula RN/GP/neither ion sheet? Name 1. Ni2 S3 RN no nickel (III) sulfide 2. N F3 GP no nitrogen trifluoride 3. Na BrO3 neither yes sodium bromate 4. S F6 GP no sulfur hexafluoride 5. Fe (NO3)3 RN yes iron (III) nitrate 6. Sr SO4

neither yes strontium sulfate Writing Chemical Formulas Use poly. Name Charges matter? ion sheet? 1. copper (II) phosphide yes no 2. lithium phosphate yes yes Formula Cu3P2 Li3PO4 3. phosphorus triiodide no no PI3 4. zinc arsenate yes yes Zn3(AsO4)2 5. silver nitride yes

no Ag3N 6. sulfur dibromide no no SBr2 7. dinitrogen pentasulfide no 8. tin (IV) nitride yes no no N2S5 Sn3N4 9. rubidium nitrite yes yes RbNO2 10. oxygen difluoride no no OF2 11. iron (III) sulfite 12. ammonium oxide

yes yes yes yes Fe2(SO3)3 (NH4)2O Writing Chemical Names Use poly. Formula RN/GP/neither ion sheet? Name 7. S O3 8. Sn Br4 GP neither no no sulfur trioxide tin (IV) bromide 9. K3 PO4 neither yes potassium phosphate 10. NH4 OH neither

yes yes ammonium hydroxide 11. C S2 GP RN 12. Cu F no no carbon disulfide copper (I) fluoride Writing Chemical Formulas Use poly. Name Charges matter? ion sheet? 1. copper (II) phosphide yes no 2. lithium phosphate yes yes Formula Cu3P2 Li3PO4 3. phosphorus triiodide no no PI3 4. zinc arsenate

yes yes Zn3(AsO4)2 5. silver nitride yes no Ag3N 6. sulfur dibromide no no SBr2 7. dinitrogen pentasulfide no 8. tin (IV) nitride yes no no N2S5 Sn3N4 9. rubidium nitrite yes yes RbNO2

10. oxygen difluoride no no OF2 11. iron (III) sulfite 12. ammonium oxide yes yes yes yes Fe2(SO3)3 (NH4)2O Writing Chemical Formulas Use poly. Name Charges matter? ion sheet? 1. copper (II) phosphide yes no 2. lithium phosphate yes yes Formula Cu3P2 Li3PO4 3. phosphorus triiodide no no

PI3 4. zinc arsenate yes yes Zn3(AsO4)2 5. silver nitride yes no Ag3N 6. sulfur dibromide no no SBr2 7. dinitrogen pentasulfide no 8. tin (IV) nitride yes no no N2S5 Sn3N4 9. rubidium nitrite yes yes

RbNO2 10. oxygen difluoride no no OF2 11. iron (III) sulfite 12. ammonium oxide yes yes yes yes Fe2(SO3)3 (NH4)2O Writing Chemical Names Use poly. Formula RN/GP/neither ion sheet? Name 1. Ni2 S3 RN no nickel (III) sulfide 2. N F3 GP no nitrogen trifluoride 3. Na BrO3 neither yes sodium bromate

4. S F6 GP no sulfur hexafluoride 5. Fe (NO3)3 RN yes iron (III) nitrate 6. Sr SO4 neither yes strontium sulfate 7. S O3 8. Sn Br4 GP neither no no sulfur trioxide tin (IV) bromide 9. K3 PO4 neither yes

potassium phosphate 10. NH4 OH neither yes ammonium hydroxide 11. C S2 GP RN no no carbon disulfide copper (I) fluoride 12. Cu F Writing Chemical Formulas Name Charges matter? 1. copper (II) phosphide yes 2. lithium phosphate yes Use poly. ion sheet? no yes Formula Cu3P2 Li3PO4 3. phosphorus triiodide

no no PI3 4. zinc arsenate yes yes Zn3(AsO4)2 5. silver nitride yes no Ag3N 6. sulfur dibromide no no SBr2 7. dinitrogen pentasulfide no 8. tin (IV) nitride yes no no N2S5 Sn3N4

9. rubidium nitrite yes yes RbNO2 10. oxygen difluoride no no OF2 11. iron (III) sulfite 12. ammonium oxide yes yes yes yes Fe2(SO3)3 (NH4)2O

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