Unit 8A: Motivation and Emotion MOTIVATION What are you motivated to do? What are you passionate about? What do you do even when you dont want to do it? What do you do even if it is hard sometimes? What do you do love to do? What is your greatest accomplishment?
Big or small? DISCUSS!!!! Motivational Concepts Motivation a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. Based off our discussion from the last slide , what emotions do you associated with your motivated accomplishment? Why do you think emotions help with motivation? Theories of Motivation Over the years there have been a number of theories of motivation
biological, cognitive and clinical. They are: Instinct theory Drive reduction theory Arousal theory Homeostasis Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Instinct Theory In the early 20th century, as Charles Darwins ideas about evolution grew popular. People started to classify all of their
behaviours as instincts. It was called instinct theory. For example, if they criticized themselves, it was because of their self abasement instinct. However this did not EXPLAIN the instincts, only labelled them. It would be like saying that a child with poor grades is an underachiever. That gives it a label, but does not explain why they are getting poor grades. Instinct a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. Animals and Humans have different instincts they are simply born with. Examples of instincts include: the sucking behaviour of newborn human babies the return of salmon to their birthplace The type of nest that a bird builds can be tied with humans building shelters, our nervous
system is more complex = more complex/different shelters. Birds can only build one type of nest for their species type. Human behaviour is directed by psychological needs and physiological wants. Biological Explanations Some psychologists believed that the key to understanding motivation was to understand the biological processes behind it. Biological motives are those that are wired into the nervous system. They include: Hunger
Thirst Pursuit of pleasure Avoidance of pain Drives and Incentives Drives are a state of tension that results from an internal imbalance. We tend to want to reduce the tension. Drive Reduction Theory the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Developed after the instinct theory collapsed.
What an example of a need? _______________________________________________________________ What an example of a drive? _______________________________________________________________ Eating and drinking are examples of drive reducing behaviors. It was believed that that all motivation originated with a biological imbalance or need. The organism was motivated when it needed something that was not present. Homeostasis a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular
level. Aim of drive reduction is homeostasis. Staying the same. Negative feedback loops ex. Temperature is like a thermostat. Not only are we PUSHED by our need to reduce drives, we are also PULLED by our incentives. Incentives Incentives a positive or negative environment stimulus that motivates behavior Positive incentives make people better off and are called "rewards." Money, hugs, stickers, and
field trips are positive incentives. These are things you want to get. Negative incentives make people worse off and are called "penalties." Losing TV time, not swimming, missing PE class, and time out are negative incentives. These are things you do not want to happen. http://www.econedlink.org/interactives/EconEdLink-interactive-tool-player.php? filename=dragndrop.swf&lid=379 Arousal Theory Arousal theorists believe that each of us has an optimal level of stimulation that we like to maintain. They explain the motivation
behind our behaviours as our attempts to maintain this optimal level of stimulation. If your optimal level of stimulation is low then you go for a walk or talk on the phone. If it is high then you might work out or listen to your favorite music. Optimum Arousal Arousal Optimum level of arousal Ex) A well fed animal will leave its safe shelter to explore and gain information, seemingly in the absence of a need based drive. Curiosity drives monkeys to monkey around trying to open a latch that opens nothing.
Drive a nine month old to crawl to investigate every corner of their home. Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal. If all our biological needs are met, we feel driven to experience stimulation and we hunger for new information. This allows us, when we feel bored to increase stimulation but if the stimulation is too much, it turns into stress and decreases arousal. Yerkes-Dodson Law A law was developed that explains that psychological arousal helps performance but only up to a certain point. The law is called the YerkesDodson Law. It states that the optimal level of arousal depends on the difficulty of the
task. Too much or too little arousal can decrease performance. For example, if you are doing a simple task, then you want a high level of arousal to get the best performance. For difficult tasks, you want a lower level of arousal to get the best performance. Example 1 1) A human infant searches for the mothers nipple Instinct theory
This is a reflexive behaviour that increases the likelihood of survival. Drive reduction theory Hunger creates an aversive state that the infant attempts to relieve through behaviours that increase the likelihood that the mouth will come in closer contact with a food source. Example 2 2) Getting a glass of water when you are hungry Drive reduction theory Thirst creates an aversive state which the person
works to diminish by behaving in ways that reduce the need. Example 3 3) Working on a difficult puzzle Arousal theory Tackling the difficult task increases the intellectual stimulation of the individual in a way that is rewarding.
Example 4 4) Crying when you are hurt or upset Instinct theory This is a reflexive behaviour that increases the likelihood of survival by drawing the attention of others who could provide aid. Drive reduction theory Physical or psychological distress aversively arouses an individual, who releases the excess energy by crying. Example 5
5) Developing a intimate relationship Drive reduction theory Sexual and reproductive needs build and an individual works to find a way to ensure that those needs can be met. Cognitive Theories Cognitive theories examine the role our thoughts play in motivating our behaviour. Lets begin by looking at two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic.
Intrinsic motivation is the desire to perform behaviour for its own sake, not for any external reward. Extrinsic motivation is the desire to perform behaviour because of promised reward or threats of punishment. Incentive Why do you do what you do? Is it for money, to get an A, or is it to be the best, the smartest? So which is better? Surprisingly, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation work together. Sometimes external rewards can help us
achieve a goal. The problem with external rewards is that behaviours maintained by extrinsic motivation alone may not continue once the reward is removed. Clinical Explanations Psychologists who assess and treat people with psychological disorders have shed additional light on the question of why do we do what we do. One example is the work of Abraham Maslow, a humanistic psychologist. Hierarchy of Needs Maslows pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then
psychological needs become active. Abraham Maslow The happiest psychologist ever I mean look at him Dont you want to hug him? ****A Hierarchy of Motives**** Variations on the Hierarchy
Maslows hierarchy is somewhat arbitrary; the order of the needs is not universal. People have starved themselves to make a political statement. Nevertheless, the simple idea that some motives are more compelling than others provides a framework for thinking about motivation. Ex) Life satisfaction surveys in different countries Poor countires lack access to money and the food and shelter it buys, therefore financial satisfaction is more strongly predicts feelings of well being. In wealthier countries, where most are able to meet basic needs, home-life satisfaction is a better predictor.
Hunger The Physiology of Hunger: Hunger does something to you that cannot be described. Nazi WW2 camps The key substances in the body are glucose, insulin, leptin, and orexin. Glucose is a form of sugar that circulates throughout your entire body. If you run low on glucose you will feel hungry. Glucose the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger. Insulin is a hormone that allows your cells to use glucose for energy or convert it to fat. When your insulin level goes up, your glucose level goes down.
Leptin is a protein that is produced by fat cells that send out a stop eating message. Orexin is a hunger-triggering hormone that is produced by the hypothalamus. When your glucose level drops, your orexin level rises and you feel hungry. The Physiology of Hunger Contractions of the stomach hunger pangs Washburn study Body Chemistry and the Brain:
Hunger Animals will automatically regulate their caloric intake to prevent energy deficits and maintain a stable body weight. This means that somehow, somewhere the body is keeping tabs on its available resources, most commonly, the blood sugar hormone glucose. Hunger controls are found in the hypothalamus, especially the lateral or sides of the hypothalamus if destroyed, starving animals have no interest in food. Food deprivation over time will cause blood sugar levels to wane,
therefore the hormone orexin needs to released to stimulate hunger. Ventromedial (lower-mid hypothalamus) depresses hunger. Damage to this area will cause excessive over eating. The Hypothalamus will also release Ghrelin, which is the hunger-arousing hormone secreted when the stomach is empty. If obese patients have stomach restricting surgery, they produce much less ghrelin and
therefore feel less hungry. When you are full you send out Obestatin to suppress hunger, along with PYY and leptin to dimish the pleasure of food. PYY has been studied as a weight loss tool. When you fall well below your normal body weight, your weight thermostat will signal your body to restore lost weight. Hunger increases and energy expenditure decreases. Your brain controls all of the substances. Your hypothalamus actively regulates your appetite. The
hypothalamus acts like a weight thermometer. It is designed to maintain a set point. This is the weight an adult should be when they are not trying to lose weight or gain weight. Set Point the point at which an individuals weight thermostat is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. So in order to control body weight, the combination lies in food intake, energy output and basal metabolic rate the bodys resting rate of energy expenditure. The successful way to lower body weight is through slow, sustained changes to slowly alter ones set point. Psychological factors can drive our feelings of hunger over the set point. Ex. Appealing foods.
With this idea of psychological factors, most psychologists subscribe to the idea of the setting point in which environment and biology play a role. Set point theory Three underlying concepts: 1. We have a basal metabolic rate. This is the resting rate at which we burn calories for energy. 2. We have a specific number of fat cells. This number can expand in size and increase in number. 3. We have hormones that work together to keep our weight where
its designed to be. Dieting When you diet you dont lose fat cells, rather each fat cell shrinks. When the fat cells get small enough, you take action to restore fat levels to their set point. When your fat levels get too low you lower your activity level in an attempt to conserve energy, and you lower your body heat in order to conserve energy as well. This is why it is harder to lose weight when youre below your set point and easier to gain weight. The body acts as though it wants to restore the level of fat to the set point. This causes people to regain weight they have lost after a successful diet.
So is dieting hopeless? No but you must create conditions for your body to want to draw upon its energy supplies. This could involve taking in fewer calories, increasing energy consumption by exercising, or both. The Psychology of Hunger Hunger is not all physiological Ex. Meals offered to amnesia patients, will eat repeatedly, even in close proximity to recent meals. Suggests that part of knowing when to eat is our memory of our last meal. As more time passes since we last ate, we anticipate eating again and feeling hungry.
Psychological influences on eating behaviour are most often evident when the desire to be a certain size overwhelms the homeostatic pressures. Taste Preferences It is not only when we feel hungry but what we feel hungry for, our taste preferences. Tense/Depressed = starchy, carb rich foods = carbs boost the neurotransmitter serotonin, which has calming effects. Stress = Oreos in rats. Genetics can play a role in whether we like sweet over salty foods and vice versa. What you eat is what you like. Childhood illnesses can increase the likelihood of food aversions.
Neophobia fear of anything new applies perfectly to food aversions. For example, we may be hesitant to try whale blubber or roasted ants, simply because they are unfamiliar. Environment and Hunger Some of the reasons that we get hungry has to do with how motivated we are by external food cues, such as the attractiveness or availability of food. The sight, sound and smell of food are called external incentives. People who are motivated by these things are called externals. Internals on the other hand are less affected by the presence and presentation of food and respond more often to internal hunger cues. Everyone responds to
both types of cues but to a greater or lesser extent. Culture Not all researchers believe that biology has the only answer to understanding our drive to eat. External incentives and culture also can have an effect. Culture can shape our attitudes towards eating and affect our food preferences. The foods that we are raised with are most likely the foods we find most appetizing. We usually prefer foods our family, region, and culture prefer because those are the foods we learned to like. What are some foods that are linked to your specific culture? The Canadian
culture? Eating Genetic engineering Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
Typically begins with a weight loss diet. Will drop 15% below normal body weight. Will display binge-purge cycles Bulimia Nervosa an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise. Weight loss diets broken by gorging on foods. Binge-purge eaters. Eat the same way people with alcohol dependency drink in spurts. Depression is most severe before and after binge-purge episodes.
Weight fluctuates within normal ranges, therefore more difficult to detect or notice. Binge Eating Disorder significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa. Binges are followed by remorse, but not purging. At some point in their lives, 0.6% of people meet the criteria for anorexia, 1% for bulimia and 2.8% for binge eating disorders.
Family environment seems to be one of the triggers of eating disorders. Ex. Competitive environments = anorexia, childhood obesity = bulimia. Culture plays a role in where these disorders may happen. Ex. India ideal shape, Africa plumpness. Strong is the New Skinny maybe what about healthy and happy? Level of Analysis for Our Hunger Motivation
Obesity and Weight Control Our bodies store fat for a good reason stored energy for periods when food is scarce. Hello! Evolution! About 1 billions people worldwide are overweight with 300 million being obese (BMI of 30 or more). Increases risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, heart disease, gall stones and can shorten life expectancy.
However, studies have shown that fitness matters more than being slightly overweight. Obesity Obesity Social Effects of Obesity Effects how an individual is treated and how they may feel. Lower psychological well-being.
Stereotyped slow, lazy, sloppy Job interview study Weight Discrimination Obesity and Weight Control The Physiology of Obesity Fat Cells are bigger and more numerous in obese people. You dont loose fat cells from your body, they simply shrink.
Obesity and Weight Control The Physiology of Obesity Set point and metabolism once you are overweight, you require less food to maintain the weight than you did to attain it. When an overweight persons weight drops below its previous set point, the persons hunger increases and metabolism decreases. The body adapts to starvation by burning fewer calories.
Therefore, starvation diets dont work! If two people weigh and look the same, the formerly obese person will require less calories to maintain their weight than will the never-overweight person. Obesity and Weight Control The Physiology of Obesity The Genetic Factor Weight is reflective of your biological parents.
Identical twins will have similar weights, even if reared apart. Obese parent boys 3x more likely to be overweight, girls 6x more likely. Gene factors identified. The food and activity factor Sleep loss leptin falls (fat indicator) and ghrelin spikes (increases hunger) Social influence people around you obese = you obese
Food consumption and activity level western cultures Obesity and Weight Control Losing Weight All is not lost! There is hope! Realistic and moderate goals Success stories Attitudinal changes
Sexual Motivation Sex is a part of life and has been for all your ancestors. Sexual motivation is natures clever way of making people procreate, thus enabling species survival! Yeah! The Sexual Response Cycle the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. 1) Excitement Phase genital areas become engorged with blood. 2) Plateau Excitement peaks, breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates increase. 3) Orgasm muscle contractions all over the body- reinforces sperm to egg chances.
4) Resolution Blood slowly leaves genital areas. Leads to Refractory Period a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm. The Physiology of Sex Hormones and Sexual Behavior Effects of hormones Development of sexual characteristics primary and secondary Activate sexual behavior to lead to arousal and intercourse Estrogen sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater
amount by females than males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity. Testosterone the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. The Psychology of Sex External stimuli hear, see,
read, pornography, etc. Imagined stimuli brain is the most significant sex organ Dreams Sexual fantasies Levels of Analysis for Sexual Motivation
Adolescent Sexuality Teen Pregnancy Ignorance wont happen to me Minimal communication about birth control uncomfortable to talk about with adults Guilt related to sexual activity regret Alcohol use less likely to use protection Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity
Adolescent Sexuality Sexually Transmitted Infections Statistics of STIs Ignorance dont know that they can get them, how they can get them, think only adults have them, etc. Teen abstinence High intelligence more likely to delay sex Religious engagement Father presence
Participation in service learning programs Sexual Orientation Sexual Orientation an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either ones own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation). Homosexual orientation Heterosexual orientation Not always as black and white as either homosexual or heterosexual orientation. Think of sexual orientation as handedness left or right hand dominant. Some are one way, some are another. A very few are ambidextrous. Sexual orientation is neither willfully chosen or willfully changed.
Sexual orientation is not an indicator of mental health. Sexual Orientation Origins of Sexual Orientation Origins of sexual orientation studies Fraternal birth order effect men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to be homosexual. May have to do with maternal antibodies increasing with each subsequent pregnancy, making the brain less male.
Same-sex attraction in animals observed in the wild. Juliet and Juliet! The brain and sexual orientation Homosexual men and women tend to have same sized brain hemispheres, where homosexual women and straight men, the right hemisphere is larger. - Blind brain studies. Genes and sexual orientation twin studies, running in families. Still on the hunt. Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation testosterone in
female sheep fetal development homosexual tendancies. Sexual Motivation The Need to Belong Aiding survival boosts survival rate, attachments = sex = babies, cooperation is easier, share the load, feeling happier, living longer, etc. Wanting to belong when we feel included, accepted, and loved by those important to us, our self-esteem rides
high. Social behavior aims to increase our belonging. Avoiding rejection means conforming to group standards and seek favorable impressions. Sustaining relationships keeping in contact, fear of being alone, allows us to form attachments, chain migration first families from one country have a difficult time until another family from that country joins them. The pain of ostracism need to belonging denied, shunned, can have catastrophic effects on victim and others around them
Motivation at Work Applying Psychology Flow a completely, involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of ones skills Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
Motivation at Work Applying Psychology Personnel Psychology sub-field of I-O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development Organizational Psychology sub-field of I-O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
Motivation at Work Motivation in the Workplace Structured Interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants applicants rated on established scales Motivation at Work
Personnel psychologists tasks Motivation at Work 360-degree feedback Motivation at Work On the right path Achievement motivation This is the desire for significant accomplishment. It is the
desire for mastery of things, people, and ideas; for attaining a high standard. People who have a high achievement motivation continue even in the face of difficulty. This is because these people have a passion to be the best that they can be. Where is your highest level of achievement motivation? What motivates you to do difficult things? General Research on Achievement Motivation
Research has shown that culture has an influence on motivation. The results have shown that: In the United States and Great Britain, achievement motivation is expressed by individual and personal success in the form of wealth and recognition. In Japan, Greece, German-speaking countries, and some Latin countries, achievement motivation is expressed by personal and individual security in the form of wealth and hard work. In France, Spain, Portugal, Chile, and other Latin countries, achievement motivation is expressed by security and belonging in the form of group wealth. In North European countries and the Netherlands, achievement motivation is expressed by success and belonging in the form of quality human relationships and living environment.
Motivating Ourselves and Others So how can we motivate ourselves and others? You will be happy to know that there are three ways that can help you develop your selfmotivation. 1. Associate your high achievement with positive emotions. For example if you do well - celebrate. It wasnt just due to good luck. 2. Connect your achievement with your efforts. For example, work hard at whatever you do and it will pay off. 3. Raise your expectations. For example set your goals high enough so that you are challenged but not so high that you cant reach them.
Motivate others There are four things that you can do to motivate others. 1. Promote intrinsic motivation. You know that intrinsic motivation produces greater achievement. Provide challenging tasks that foster curiosity. Dont use rewards that manipulate behavior. Keep in mind to always praise effort rather than ability. 2. Attend to individual motives. Try to discover what motivates each individual. Pay extra attention to those that need it. 3. Set specific, challenging goals. If your goals are clear, direct attention, and stimulate creative strategies, this alone will be motivating.
4. Choose an appropriate leadership style. There are two basic styles: Motivation 1) Task Leadership goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals Can you think of an example activity ? 2) Social Leadership group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Can you think of an example activity ? Motivation further Theory X assumes that workers are basically lazy, errorprone, and extrinsically motivated by money workers should be directed from above Theory Y assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and
creativity Conflicting Motives Sometimes the urge to do something worthy or good is directly opposed by the fact that it involves pain or inconvenience or hard work. There is a conflict between two opposite motives. There are three forms of motivational conflict. They are 1. approach/approach 2. avoidance/avoidance, 3.
approach/avoidance. Approach/approach Approach/approach is a positive win/win situation. When you are offered two attractive choices, you are enticed by both possibilities. Both alternatives are equally desirable in this type of conflict. You must consider each choice in turn and you may waver from one to the other until you finally decide. Sometimes you put your decision on hold until you have a chance to think about
it. Gradually one alternative will gain a slight edge over the other and you decide in its favour. Later you may reverse your decision. This type of conflict is easy to solve. Example? Avoidance/avoidance Avoidance/avoidance is not a good situation to be facing. You are offered two unattractive choices and are asked to choose one. Your strategy will be to assess both possibilities carefully and take the lesser of two evils.
Example? Approach/avoidance Approach/avoidance is where there are both positive and negative values. Few choices in our lives are either all good or all bad. Many of them will have a mixture of both. When this happens you are pulled in opposite directions as you focus on the good points and then the bad points. These conflicts are usually much more complex especially when they have to do with your
personal relationships. Example? Examples Which is it out of the 3 examples? 1. You want to maintain a high grade-point average and need to study hard before the exam tomorrow, but you have been asked to go to a party at you best friends house tonight. 2. You are happy to be doing well on your diet but now you have to decide whether or not to go with friends for lunch at your favorite fast food restaurant or to stay and eat your low
calorie snack in the cafeteria. 3. In order to be allowed to borrow the family car for the evening, you have to decide between doing two different things that you absolutely hate doing. 4. You entered your name into a contest and won a seven day Caribbean cruise. You have to decide between an eastern Caribbean cruise and a western Caribbean cruise. 5. You are overweight and out of shape. You are given a choice of two daily exercise routines.
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