Unit one review - Welcome to AP Human Geography!

Unit one review - Welcome to AP Human Geography!

WA P E R I G V O E E

R G O T E NI O N OC T T DU I

N UNTRO I H Y CORRELATION Positive correlation or just correlation

As one goes up, the other goes up For example as GDP increases, literacy rate increases Negative correlation As one goes up, the other goes down As one goes down, the other goes up For example As literacy rate increases, infant mortality rate decreases TYPES OF MAPS

Cartogram Dot density Choropleth Graduated symbol

Isoline CARTOGRAM CHOROPLETH MAP DOT DENSITY MAP GRADUATED SYMBOL MAP

ISOLINE MAP REGIONS Formal - measurable Functional based on a hub or node Perceptual (Vernacular) gut feeling about a place

LOCATION Toponym Site what its like there Situation - relative location

Absolute location DIFFUSION Relocation Expansion Contagious Stimulus Hierarchical (reverse hierarchical) Distance decay the farther away you are from something, the less influence it has on you

Space-time compression easier to move things as technology improves (crossing the ocean for example) DISTRIBUTION Density doesnt tell the whole story Concentration where the items are located Remember Canada as an

example! DENSITY VERSUS CONCENTRATION Greater Concentration Greater Density MAP PROJECTIONS

Mercator Robinson Peters Polar (Azimuthal)

MERCATOR PROJECTION ROBINSON PROJECTION PETERS PROJECTION POLAR (AZIMUTHAL) PROJECTION THEORIES

Environmental Determinism (Malthus!) Possibilism (Boserup!) TECHNOLOGY GIS layering maps, Google Earth GPS only for positioning (absolute location)

Remote Sensing using satellites to gather data There has never been an FRQ just from Unit One! THE SPREAD OF SPECIALTY COFFEE SOPS ACROSS THE U.S. IN THE 1990S IS AN EXAMPLE OF A.Hierarchical diffusion

B.Contagious diffusion C.Stimulus diffusion D.Periodic movement E.Relocation diffusion A FORMAL REGION DEFINES AN AREA IN WHICH A.A core dominates its surrounding hinterland B.A transportation network links different types of land use

C.There is uniformity in one or more physical or human characteristics D.There are significant geographic variations in physical or human characteristics E.A unified government system has been established WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS THE PRIMARY ASSUMPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM?

A.Human destiny is controlled by the cultural environment B.The physical environment has little influence on humans C.Humans have complete control over the physical environment D.Many human adaptations are possible within a specific physical environment E.The physical environment controls

human culture TEST TAKING TIPS MULTIPLE CHOICE Use PENCIL for multiple choice 75 questions 60 minutes Narrow it down, answer, and move on Make a note to go back but dont leave it blank in case you run out of time!

No penalty for guessing (wrong answers dont deduct points) MULTIPLE CHOICE If you have no idea.figure out what unit it is from and focus on what you DO know eliminate any wrong answers and go from there Beware of words like only, always, or never unless you

are SURE they are correct! THREE MAIN TYPES OF MC QUESTIONS 1.Conceptual analyze a concept 2.Interpretation of map, graph, chart visual prompt 3.Fact-based vocabulary or choose a country that represents the concept

FRQS Use PEN for FRQs cross-outs and arrows are ok 75 minutes for 3 FRQs Do the easiest one first! Leave yourself enough SPACE on FRQs in case you want to add more later! Do NOT add an intro or conclusion FRQS

Label your FRQ # in the answer book Label your parts A, B, C, etc. You do NOT need to answer them in order, just label which is which! Write legibly your grader will like you! FRQS Be thorough but concise. If it asks for a

definition, you dont need a whole paragraph Use vocab as much as you can it will show the reader you know your stuff! Underline or circle your action verbs define, explain, analyze, compare, describe, identify, give an example Be sure to notice HOW MANY examples, etc., you need

FRQS Be sure to notice if they are asking for something that is specifically, economic, social, political, etc. Reread your answer to make sure it answers what is being asked complete the circle Do not stray from the topic Do not list 10 examples if it asks for 3 they will only grade your first 3!

FRQS DO NOT SKIP AN FRQ!!!! You have a slim to none chance of passing the exam if you skip one. If you dont know the answer, just pull from what you DO know about the topic and you might get lucky and get some points! Do not use bullet points COMPLETE SENTENCES! YOU NEED TO

SOUND SCHOLARLY! HOW MUCH TO WRITE Identify/name/define/list write one sentence (or two or three depending on how many items they are asking for) Describe/apply write a few sentences Explain/compare/analyze write a paragraph

Analyze write 2-3 paragraph Discuss/predict write 2-3 paragraphs PAST VERB USAGE Between 2001 2014, the APHG exam used the following verbs most frequently: Explain 24 Identify 13 Describe 5

Discuss 5 Define 3 Compare - 1 THE DAY OF THE EXAM Get a good nights sleep and eat breakfast! Do not try to cram all night or in the morning you will just end up tired and stressed! Be on time 7:30 a.m. at St. Roberts Bring water and a snack Leave your phone OFF

MC questions are first, followed by a 15 minute break Take 5 minutes to read all 3 FRQs before you start Be sure to read the entire FRQ before you start writing Use any prompts or visuals to your advantage! W E ON

I I T EV R A R MIG O ND

A W T N IO T I AT L N

U U OP P MOST POPULOUS REGIONS

South Asia (rural) East Asia (rural) Southeast Asia (rural) Europe (urban) NE United States (urban) Western Africa (rural) TYPES OF DENSITIES

Arithmetic (regular) density Physiological density Carrying capacity Agricultural density NON-ECUMENE

Too wet Too dry Too cold Too high The ecumene has increased due to technology (possibilism!)

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL No countries are in stage 1 Transition from 1 to 2 Industrial Revolution, Medical Revolution 1: High birth and death rates 2: Rapidly decreasing death rates 3: Rapidly declining birth rates 4: Low birth and death rates; Zero Population Growth (United States) 5: Death rate higher than birth rate

(Japan, South Korea, some Europe) EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRANSITION Mostly matches up with DTM As a country develops it moves away from contagious diseases (water borne etc) and toward lifestyle-induced diseases (obesity, drinking, smoking, violence) Stage 5 reverts back mutations,

increased travel, poverty THOMAS MALTHUS Late 1700s Britain Overpopulation Worlds population was growing faster than rate of food production Didnt realize we would have technology to increase food production Neo (new) Malthusians still believe he

is/was correct POPULATION PYRAMIDS Also called age-sex graphs Males on left, females on right Show dependency ratio and sex ratio Can be for country, city, or neighborhood

Large base = high birth rate, less developed country Large top, small base = low birth rate, many elderly, more developed country JAPANS CHANGING POPULATION POPULATION POLICIES Pronatalist Denmark, Singapore,

Romania Antinatalist China, India DEMOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS CBR (out of 1000) CDR (out of 1000) CDR is the one that doesnt tell you about development!

IMR (out of 1000) TFR (2.1 is stable) NIR (CBR minus CDR, move decimal one to left) Doubling time (divide NIR by 70) Life expectancy TYPES OF MIGRATION Chain

Step Internal Interregional Intraregional International Involuntary (forced) Net migration (immigration minus emigration) Voluntary generally for JOBS Seasonal (transnational)

PUSH AND PULL FACTORS Economic, political, environmental Mostly economic REFUGEES Voluntarily leave for fear of death or persecution

Internally Displaced Persons refugees within their home country Asylum Seekers seeking refugee status Africa has had the most internal refugees Today many from North Africa/Middle East to Europe MIGRATION PATTERNS Historically, rural to urban Today urban to suburban, urban to rural

(counter-urbanization) Mostly LDC to MDC United States north and east to west and south Ravensteins laws: mostly young, single males, mostly short distances, long distance migrants head toward cities GLOBAL MIGRATION PATTERNS

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. PAST FRQS 2003 - Europe as a destination for migrants 2005 - Immigration to the U.S. 2006 - Migration streams 2008 North American net in/out migration 2010 population pyramids

2011 Malthus 2013 Ageing populations (TFR) 2015 Refugees from SW Asia FRQ PREDICTIONS Density, scale, distributions National population policies fertility rates Epidemiological transition Impact of natural disasters on a

population Population pyramid analysis PHYSIOLOGICAL POPULATION DENSITY IS VIEWED AS A SUPERIOR MEASURE OF POPULATION DENSITY FOR WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REASONS? A.It is more reflective of population pressure on arable land B.It yields the average population density

C.It is more reflective of the world largest population concentrations D.It measures the average by dividing total land area by total number of people E.It best reflects the percentage of a countrys population that is urbanized IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REGIONS IS POPULATION DENSITY HIGH AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT LOW?

A.Northeastern United States B.Sudan C.India D.Japan E.Eastern Australia SINCE THE 1970S, CHANGES IN THE SOCIAL ROLES, LIFESTYLES, AND EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS OF WOMEN IN EUROPE, CANADA, AND THE UNITED STATES HAVE AFFECTED THE OVERALL POPULATION THROUGH

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING? A.Increased total fertility rates B.Decreased total fertility rates C.Increased death rates D.Decreased death rates E.Increased infant mortality rates TH T RE

I U N T U UL C E E R

CULTURE Habit, custom, culture Folk culture small group, homogeneous, small area, relocation diffusion Popular culture large group, heterogeneous, worldwide, contagious/hierarchical/stimulus diffusion Globalization as a theme throughout

class Cultural hearths ancient and modern Cultural landscape = built EARLY CULTURAL HEARTHS 2 0 1 4 P E A R S O N E D U C AT I O N , I N C . LANGUAGE Family, branch, group

Indo-European family Romance (Spanish, French) and Germanic (English) branches Sino-Tibetan family includes Mandarin Chinese (most spoken language in world) Dialects vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation, isogloss Result of migration Lingua franca English, Swahili Official languages due to colonialism Creole, pidgin, logograms

RELIGION Universalizing Christianity, Islam, Buddhism (seek converts, widespread) Ethnic Judaism, Hinduism (not widespread) Christianity most followers; spread through colonialism Islam fastest growing; Indonesia has most Muslims Monotheistic and polytheistic

Religious structures churches, synagogues, mosques, temples, pagodas ETHNICITY Race vs Ethnicity vs Nationality Ethnic cleansing vs Genocide Serbia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Sudan Balkanization Yugoslavia

Potential to occur in Caucasus Mountain region DISTRIBUTION OF HISPANICS IN U.S. DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANS IN U.S. DISTRIBUTION OF ASIAN AMERICANS IN U.S. PAST FRQS

2002 Religion and cultural landscape 2003 effects of tourism on regional landscape 2007 minority languages and globalization 2008 gender and education 2009 religious distribution in U.S. 2012 Muslim migration to Europe 2015 English as lingua franca 2016 French bilingualism in Canada

FRQ PREDICTIONS Popular versus folk culture, future of folk cultures Ethnic distributions (nation-states vs states) Ethnic conflicts Yugoslavia (Bosnia and Kosovo) Gender inequality (industry and agriculture) Diffusion of culture impacts of colonialism, imperialism, and trade (Columbian Exchange, globalization)

Differences between religions distributions and beliefs, universal versus ethnic, spread of Islam or Christianity WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ORIGINATED IN SOUTH ASIA AND SUBSEQUENTLY SPREAD THROUGHOUT MUCH OF SOUTHEAST AND EAST ASIA? A.Hinduism

B.Christianity C.Buddhism D.Sikhism E.Confucianism R U GAN FO O R L

T A I IC N U OLIT P IZ

A T IO N O

F S P A C

E LAW OF THE SEA Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 200 nautical miles state has sole exploitation rights over all natural resources Controversial in the Arctic Ocean overlap China is ignoring this Law in the

South China Sea trying to exploit resources that arent in their EEZ TYPES OF STATES Nation State nation-state stateless nation multiethnic state

multinational state multi-state nation Microstate Colony Ends in state it is a country! Ends in nation it is a culture!

STATELESS NATIONS/MULTINATIONAL STATES Kurds Iraq and Turkey Basques Spain Quebecois Canada Catalonians Spain Chechens Russia Tibetans China Sikhs Northern India

Devolution Balkanization Irredentism Cold War Balance of Power THEORIES OF WORLD DOMINANCE Heartland Theory MacKinder (land based power) Rimland Theory - Spykeman (sea based power)

Organic Theory Ratzel (countries are like living organisms) Domino Theory (if one country fell to Communism, more would follow) COLONIALISM Great Britain and France had the largest colonial empires Relocation diffusion languages, religions

Imperialism Effects on Africas borders Three Gs COLONIAL POSSESSIONS, 1914 COLONIAL POSSESSIONS, 2012 SHAPES OF STATES

Compact Elongated Fragmented Perforated

Prorupted Landlocked many in Africa (colonialism) Enclave Exclave Or Prorupted TYPES OF GOVERNMENT

Democracy Autocracy Anocracy The world is becoming more and more democratic Arab Spring 2011 attempts by several

Arab nations to overthrow corrupt governments has led to civil war in Syria FORCES Centrifugal Centripetal SUPRANATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Economic, Political, Defense EU UN NAFTA

NATO Cold War began the need for alliances NATO/Warsaw Pact EU BOUNDARIES Boundary types physical and cultural Antecedent Geometric Relict

Subsequent/Consequent Superimposed Boundary disputes Functional Positional Resource (Allocational) Territorial PAST FRQS 2002 Nations and states in Europe and

SW Asia 2005 Supranationalism and devolution 2006 centrifugal and centripetal forces 2010 national identity development 2012 walls and barriers 2014 superimposed boundaries 2015 gerrymandering FRQ PREDICTIONS Changing map from 1940s to present fall of

communism and end of Cold War Recent nationalism impacts on countries devolution Heartland, Rimland, Organic theories Forms of governments unitary vs federal states Impacts of terrorism Supranational organizations Devolution in UK, Spain, Canada, former Yugoslavia, Caucasus, Belgium

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS AN EXAMPLE OF A SUPRANATIONAL ORGANIZATION WITH THE MAIN MISSION OF INCREASING ECONOMIC INTEGRATION? A.North Atlantic Treaty Organization B.European Union C.United Nations D.Red Cross E.United States Federal Reserve

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CAN BE AN EXAMPLE OF A CENTRIFUGAL POLITICAL FORCE? A.Homogeneous ethnic population B.Strong central government C.Variation of language within the country D.Shift to tertiary economy E.Concentrated ownership of media

E VE I F R U T T I UL

N IC U GR A AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONS First Neolithic 3000 BC Second Industrial late 1700s/early 1800s

Third Green (1940s) and Biotech (1970s) CROP HEARTHS CARL SAUER HE MIGHT COME UP??!! One of the first to argue that agricultural hearths formed independently from one another Said hearths were located in areas with

high biodiversity on the edge of forests Said that early agriculture came from cutting stems and dividing roots, rather than from planting seeds Landscape Theory Humans have created the cultural landscape Fierce critic of Environmental Determinism THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE

TYPES OF AGRICULTURE Determined by climate Intensive vs Extensive Subsistence vs Commercial

Developed vs Developing TYPES OF AGRICULTURE market gardening Plantation aka commercial shifting cultivation gardening aka truck pastoral nomadism farming

intensive Ranching subsistence rice mixed crop and intensive livestock subsistence not rice Grain Mediterranean Dairy

VON THUNEN MODEL MODERN AGRICULTURE

Women in agriculture World hunger and malnutrition Food deserts Cash crops

Sustainable agriculture Organic farming Commercial farming decline of family farm, feedlots Agribusiness Aquaculture PAST FRQS 2001 Green Revolution 2004 Poultry farming (commercial ag)

2007 von Thunen model 2008 von Thunen vs Burgess (both have rings) 2009 decline of dairy farms 2012 shifting cultivation/subsistence agriculture 2014 coffee production 2016 subsistence vs. commercial agriculture FRQ PREDICTIONS

First and Second Ag Revolutions Columbian Exchange Connections between physical geography and agricultural practices Biotech and GMOs Economic forces that influence agriculture Complementarity and comparative advantages for agriculture (global food patterns) Impact of women on food consumption and

production WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REGIONS HAS LITTLE DAIRYING IN ITS TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE? A.Eastern Europe B.Western Europe C.South Asia D.East Asia

E.North America WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS A SUBSISTENCE CROP? A.Corn B.Cotton C.Rubber D.Cocoa E.Timber

ALL OF THE FOLLOWING ABOUT THE GEOGRAPHY OF MEAT PRODUCTION IN THE U.S. AND CANADA ARE TRUE EXCEPT: A. Industrial farmers are raising ever-increasing numbers of animals on their farms B. Animal slaughtering and meat-processing activities are dominated by a few large corporations C. The development of the poultry industry has made chicken the least expensive kind of meat consumed in the U.S. and Canada

D. Fast-food restaurants have created a demand for increased standardization and homogeneity of animals raised for meat E. Consumer demand for organic foods has significantly decreased the amount of meat produced by most agribusiness firms D X D

I N SY A T TR I S N U UND

I E V E L

O P M E N

T HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX Social: literacy rate, years of

schooling, pupil to teacher ratio Demographic: life expectancy Economic: GDP per capita or GNI per capita, at PPP Brandt Line separates MDCs and LDCs Best: Norway THE BRANDT LINE

The Brandt Line is located at 30 degrees North; it separates the More Developed northern countries from the Less Developed southern countries. 2 0 1 4 P E A R S O N E D U C AT I O N , I N C . HDI BY REGION GENDER INEQUALITY INDEX Empowerment: women in legislature, women completing high

school Labor: women in labor force Reproductive health: maternal mortality rate, adolescent fertility rate Most progress: North Africa and Southwest Asia U.S. lags behind some other developed areas Best: Iceland

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS 8 goals United Nations

Expired in 2015 Fairly successful Poverty, health, education, global connectedness EUROPES EARLY INDUSTRIAL CENTERS Europe was the first region to industrialize during the nineteenth century. Numerous industrial centers emerged in Europe as countries competed with each other for supremacy.

NORTH AMERICAS EARLY INDUSTRIAL CENTERS North Americas manufacturing was traditionally highly concentrated in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. In recent years, manufacturing has relocated to the South, lured by lower wages and legislation that has made it difficult for unions to organize factory workers. EAST ASIAS EARLY INDUSTRIAL AREAS

East Asia became an important industrial region in the second half of the 20th century, beginning with Japan. Into the

21st century, China has emerged as the worlds leading manufacturing country by most measures. WEBERS LEAST COST THEORY Triangle agglomeration, labor,

transportation costs Substitution principle Bulk-gaining and bulk-reducing industries Basic (city forming) and non-basic (city serving) industries WEBERS INDUSTRIAL LEAST COST MODEL Labor

Sweet spot Agglomeration Transportation DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Self-sufficiency approach (bubble)

International Trade approach (what are you good at?) ECONOMIC SECTORS

Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Quinary WALLERSTEINS WORLD SYSTEM THEORY Core, periphery, semi-periphery Periphery countries supply cheap labor

and raw materials Semi-periphery = NIC (newly industrialized country) Core countries provide market and industry Can also occur within a country urban and rural Wallersteins Theory: Core and periphery countries need each other to exist; no country

develops in isolation ROSTOWS DEVELOPMENT MODEL Five stages less developed to more developed Primary to secondary to tertiary/quaternary/quinary Also matches up with Wallerstein and DTM 2: Periphery 3: Semi-periphery

4-5: Core No countries are in stage 1 of Rostow or DTM! Agriculture, mining, etc. Industry and manufacturing Service

industries CHANGES IN U.S. EMPLOYMENT TRADE New International Division of Labor Transnational corporations - Outsourcing Trade blocs NAFTA, EU, ASEAN Export Processing Zones/Free Trade Zones/Special Economic Zones

maquiladoras, China Complementarity and comparative advantage PAST FRQS 2001 Rostow 2003 Wallerstein 2004 maquiladoras 2006 southern businesses and locations of call centers (footloose)

2007 international division of labor 2010 Webers theory of industrial location 2011 locations of automobile industries in U.S. 2013 technopoles (growth poles) as industrial regions 2014 Rostow vs. Wallerstein 2016 primary, secondary, tertiary activities FRQ PREDICTIONS Industrial revolution impacts

Measures of development HDI UN Millennium goals Women in the workforce Complementarity and comparative advantage impacts on trade Sustainable development Ecotourism OUTSOURCED INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OFTEN

RELIES ON FEMALE LABOR BECAUSE A.Men are engaged mainly in agriculture B.Wage rates for women are much lower than for men C.Women are more skilled at operating machinery than men are D.Social taboos prevent women from working in the service sector E.Women are not protected by international labor laws

COMPARED WITH MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS TRUE OF LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES? A.A higher percent of the labor force is engaged in food production B.The population pyramids exhibit narrower bases C.The per capita consumption of energy is higher

D.The natural increase of the population is lower E.Fertility rates are lower FREE TRADE ZONES SUCH AS THE COUNTRIES OF NAFTA ARE ESTABLISHED TO INCREASE THE EASE AND VOLUME OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE BY A.Increasing diplomatic relations between member states

B.Opening borders to migrant guest workers from member states C.Establishing a common monetary unit among member states D.Offering large economic-0development loans to poorer member states E.Eliminating tariffs on goods that cross borders between member states

WHAT WOULD BE THE MOST PROFITABLE LOCATION FOR AN ETHANOL PLANT THAT CONVERTS CORN INTO ALCOHOL FOR USE AS AN ADDITIVE FOR GASOLINE? A.Near a large university to facilitate recruitment of highly trained chemists B.Near a break-of-bulk point for ease of transportation C.Near a navigable river to reduce transportation costs to distant markets

D.Near a prime corn-producing area to minimize transportation costs of raw materials E.Near a large metropolitan area to serve a major market IT IS GENERALLY AGREED THAT THE CURRENT TREND IN CLIMATE CHANGE IS CAUSED BY A.Sea-level rise

B.Increased use of fossil fuels C.Reduction in biodiversity D.Tilt of Earths axis E.Changes in the velocity of ocean currents ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS, LABOR AVAILABILITY, AND ACCESS TO MARKETS ARE MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING?

A.Political affiliation B.Gross Domestic Product C.Property tax rates D.Manufacturing locations E.Transportation costs NN E V BA

R E U SN D T A I S N E

U ITI C L A N D

U S E CHRISTALLERS CENTRAL PLACE THEORY Range and threshold Hexagon shapes

Larger businesses have a larger range and threshold Hierarchy: hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis, megalopolis CHRISTALLERS CENTRAL PLACE THEORY MAJOR WORLD CITIES Global cities - New York, London are A+ +

Most populated city Tokyo Rank-size rule United States (mostly MDCs) Primate city rule London, Paris, Buenos Aires, Mexico City (mostly LDCs) Gravity model population and distance GLOBAL CITIES Global cities are centers for the provision of services in the

global economy. London and New York, the two dominant global cities, are ranked as alpha++. GLOBAL CITIES IN NORTH AMERICA COUNTRIES WITHOUT A PRIMATE CITY URBAN ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

Suburban sprawl

Redlining Blockbusting Public housing Filtering Gentrification New Urbanism Greenbelts Slums Squatter settlements

URBAN CITY MODELS Burgess - concentric zone model Hoyt - sector model Harris-Ullman - multiple nuclei Harris - Galactic city model Vance - Urban realms model Griffin-Ford - Latin America spine of high-quality housing European - historical influence McGee Southeast Asian ports for

trade De Blij - African colonial CBD, Islamic influence CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL - BURGESS BID-RENT THEORY Burgess is based on the bid-rent curve: HOYT SECTOR MODEL

HARRIS-ULLMAN MULTIPLE NUCLEI MODEL GALACTIC CITY MODEL (PERIPHERAL MODEL) - HARRIS URBAN REALMS MODEL - VANCE MODEL OF A LATIN AMERICAN CITY

(GRIFFIN-FORD) Wealthy people live in the inner city and a sector extending along a commercial spine. AFRICAN CITY MODEL DE BLIJ SOUTHEAST ASIAN CITY MODEL - MCGEE

WHY ARE URBAN AREAS EXPANDING? BORCHERTS EPOCHS OF URBAN GROWTH PAST FRQS 2001 North American metropolitan growth/ suburbs 2002 households headed by women/Hoyt

model 2004 demographics and the city (bid-rent, population pyramids) 2005 revitalization of the Central Business District 2009 squatter settlements 2011 Mexico primate city/rank-size rule 2013 railways and highways in U.S. (Borchert)

FRQ PREDICTIONS World cities and megacities functions, distributions, future growth Gravity model interactions between cities Multiple nuclei model growth of suburbs Galactic city model growth of suburbs Latin American city model Sustainable (smart) design for cities

Central place theory threshold and range ACCORDING TO CENTRAL PLACE THEORY, THE THRESHOLD IS DEFINED AS THE A.Economic base of a central place B.Distance away from a central place C.Gross value of the product minus the

costs of production D.Minimum number of people needed to support a service E.Point at which consumer movement is minimum WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING BEST DESCRIBES THE PROCESS OF GENTRIFICATION IN THE U.S. AND CANADIAN CITIES? A.An increase in construction of new housing

for elderly and retired persons B.Privately funded redevelopment of existing commercial and residential buildings C.Government-led planning of public spaces such as parks and riverfronts D.The sale of naming rights for stadiums and arenas E.The expansion of suburban housing developments on the urban periphery

SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS EXIST IN CITIES OF LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES BECAUSE A.City governments set aside vacant areas for new migrants B.People want to live near the center of the city, where jobs are located C.Affordable housing is not available

elsewhere for new migrants to the city D.New migrants prefer to live in squatter settlements with other recent migrants E.New migrants need to be isolated from the other city residents until they adjust to urban life ACCORDING TO THE RANK-SIZE RULE, IF THE LARGEST CITY IN A REGION HAS A POPULATION OF 900,000, THEN THE THIRD-LARGEST CITY

WILL HAVE A POPULATION OF A.3,000 B.9,000 C.45,000 D.300,000 E.900,000 SINCE 1960 BRAZIL, KAZAKHSTAN, MYANMAR, PAKISTAN, AND TANZANIA HAVE RELOCATED THEIR CAPITAL CITIES. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING

STATEMENTS ABOUT THE NEW LOCATIONS IS TRUE FOR ALL FIVE COUNTRIES? A.A militarily strategic location was chosen B.An isolated location was chosen C.An ethnically mixed location was chosen D.A more central location was chosen E.A coastal location was chosen

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