Unit Two: Ancient & Classical Art Developed by Cynthia Millis and Lisa Wildermuth for Online Model ARTS 1303 Course - 2015 Egypt Please study the related Map and Timeline in the required text.
Chronology Predynastic 3500 3150 BCE Archaic (a.k.a. Early Dynastic) 3150 2680 BCE Old Kingdom 2680 2190 BCE
First Intermediate 2190 2040 BCE Middle Kingdom 2040 1780 BCE Second Intermediate 1780 1560 BCE New Kingdom 1560 1070 BCE
Third Intermediate (a.k.a. Late Period) 1070 332 BCE Ptolemaic 332 30 BCE Egypt was one of the most stable of the ancient cultures. This was in large part due to the Nile River. Its predictability and capacity to deliver rich soil each flood season ensured the Egyptians plentiful crops.
However, the incredible green growth along the Nile stood in sharp contrast to the desert and mountains just beyond the waters reach. That contrast was not lost on the Egyptians who revered natures power. The Ancient Egyptians practiced >polytheism Their religion had a huge pantheon. Each god or goddess was charged with a specific duty and was shown in a very specific way in Egyptian art (exemplified here). Using the text, how many of the figures can you identify in this scene from a Book of
the Dead? >Book of the Dead >papyrus >scrolls In addition to their pantheon, the Egyptians also believed in an afterlife and the use of objects from this life in that afterlife. Tombs were very important and were filled with images of usable objects (and the objects themselves). The Egyptians believed
it was crucial that ones body be used to enjoy all of these objects in the afterlife. >mummification According to the Smithsonian, describe the process of mummification including >canopic jars We know so much about the Ancient Egyptians because they left behind their written language known as ____________ . This language is pictographic, meaning ______________________________________. The scholar pictured below (right) was credited with cracking the code - _________________. Discuss how the
scholar was able to use the object pictured below (left) to decipher the Ancient Egyptian language. Pre-Unification Early in Ancient Egyptian history the civilization was divided into two countries living next to one another. Each country had a different ruler, but seemed to share cultural similarities. The two countries were known as _______ Egypt and __________ Egypt.
Lower Egypt Upper Egypt
Largest land area Mountains and deserts Plant symbol = lotus Animal symbol = vulture White crown
The Delta Marshland Plant symbol = papyrus Animal symbol = cobra Red crown
Even after unification took place, the symbols of the two geographic regions play an important role in Egyptian art. Can you identify the symbolism on the pharaohs throne? How about on the
pharaohs forehead? Archaic/ Early Dynastic Once unified Egyptian rule took the form of >pharaoh/pharaonic >dynasty/dynastic The Egyptians were great at documenting. It seems they recorded everything. Unification
was documented many times. One of the most famous art objects documenting the Egyptian unification is the Palette of Narmer. >palette According to the text, how does the Palette of Narmer differ from most Ancient Egyptian palettes? It is not only an unusual palette, but a significant work of art in two ways. 1. Visual Documentation documents the unification and reinforces that concept with visual symbols.
2. Visual Conventions introduces us to visual conventions used throughout Ancient Egyptian art. According to the text, describe the scenes and symbols that tell us this object documents the unification. Discuss the visual conventions found on the palette. Be sure to address >registers >Canon of Proportions
WHAT: CONTEXT: Because of the importance of tombs to the Egyptians, we will compare some through history. Although burials occur from the beginning, we will start with the first type of complex construction. >mastaba(s) >burial chamber >chapel
>serdab >ka statue According to the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, what is a ka and why is it so important? Old Kingdom
As we enter the Old Kingdom Period, pharaohs are not satisfied with mastaba burials. They want something more >monumental = Although for most wealthy Egyptians mastabas continue, for pharaohs we see the evolution of the pyramid, from mastaba to step pyramid to true pyramid. The first step in the evolution begins at the tomb complex of the pharaoh Djoser. He hired the architect, ____________, and together they designed the complex. Djosers Complex was a sensation! Pharaohs after him wanted their tomb complexes
to be bigger, better and their pyramids to be perfect. So, the pharaohs after Djoser tried to achieve a perfect, smooth-sided, or true pyramid. This took some trial and error (see a failed pyramid below). Until finally, perfection was achieved at TITLE: CULTURE/ARTIST: FORM & MEDIUM:
WHEN: WHERE: HOW: WHAT: CONTEXT: Each of the three pyramid complexes belonged to a different pharaoh of the fourth dynasty. Put the pharaohs pyramids in order according to age (oldest first): 1.
2. 3. Using the drawing to assist you, point out the main parts of each complex and their function. The complex of ________ includes a sculpture of the
pharaoh as a >sphinx = According to Dr. Bob Brier for Archaeology, what are some of the theories regarding the construction of the Pyramids of Giza (Gizeh)? Sculptures found at the pyramid complexes at Giza serve as excellent examples of
Old Kingdom Period pharaonic sculpture. Discuss the characteristics of sculptures of pharaohs from the Old Kingdom Period. Be sure to include the term >idealized = Khafre Menkaure and Wife
TITLE: CULTURE/ARTIST: FORM & MEDIUM: WHEN: WHERE: HOW: WHAT: CONTEXT:
Here the sculpture on the right serves as a counterpoint to our pharaohs. Sculptures of other individuals are markedly different from sculptures of pharaohs. According to the text, how so? Middle Kingdom Sculptures of Senusret III illustrate the difference between Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom sculptures of pharaohs. Discuss the difference. Be sure to include the term >realism =
What might be the reason(s) for this difference? HINT: What happened between the end of the Old and beginning of the Middle Kingdom Periods? TITLE:
CULTURE/ARTIST: FORM & MEDIUM: WHEN: WHERE: HOW: WHAT: CONTEXT: The standard Egyptian tomb-type shifted
from the mastaba to the _________ tomb during the Middle Kingdom. How were these tombs constructed? The walls of these tombs were painted, usually with scenes from life on the wealthy tomb-owners estate. Wooden models, also related to life on the estate, were placed in these tombs. The tomb owners believed all things depicted (both 2 D and 3D) would be usable in the afterlife. After searching the Mets collection of Egyptian tomb models, list some of the
activities/objects the tomb owners wanted in their afterlife. New Kingdom This new time is considered the period of Empire in Ancient Egypt. Think about other Empires we have or will be covering in this course (or even outside this course). What constitutes an Empire? One of the pharaohs from early in the New Kingdom credited with building the Empire
was Hatshepsut. Using the text and article from Smithsonian Magazine, How did she come to occupy the throne of Egypt, to become the pharaoh? How was she portrayed in art and why? Hatshepsut undertook a huge building campaign during her reign. The crown jewel of that campaign was her Funerary Temple. Although the temple itself is unique, she followed the burial trend of the New Kingdom. Pharaohs were buried
underground in tombs with hidden entrances in the Valley of the Kings. Then built their temples geographically separate from their tombs. According to National Geographic why? If we look at typical New Kingdom temples, that of Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahri becomes even more striking. Using Digital Karnak by UCLA define this selection of architectural terms relating to New Kingdom temples: >obelisk >pylon
>peristyle court >hypostyle hall >sanctuary Based on your definitions, what can you identify in these images? An interesting interlude during the New Kingdom Period comes during the reign of Akhenaten. After reading the text and the article from the BBC, what religious reforms
did this pharaoh undertake? Discuss his new political capital. How is art from the Amarna Period different from the rest of Ancient Egyptian art? Akhenaten had many important women in his life including his mother, wives and daughters. Using the Berlin Museum site in the notes below and the Time
Magazine article become acquainted with Akhenatens family. Who is this? How is she related to Akhenaten? Where does this statue and the statue on the next slide reside? What is the controversy surrounding this? TITLE:
CULTURE/ARTIST: FORM & MEDIUM: WHEN: WHERE: HOW: WHAT: CONTEXT: Tutankhamen is credited with restoring Ancient Egypts religious traditions after
the brief Amarna experiment. However, he is most famous for his tomb! Using this New York Times article published in 1923 and a GWS, describe the circumstances of the tombs discovery and a brief inventory of the items found in the tomb. Yes, wonderful things. Quote from the modern discoverer of the tomb, ____ ______. TITLE:
CULTURE/ARTIST: FORM & MEDIUM: WHEN: WHERE: HOW: WHAT: CONTEXT:
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