U.S. History Chapter 20 Notes Politics of the Roaring Twenties

U.S. History Chapter 20 Notes Politics of the Roaring Twenties

U.S. History Chapter 11 Notes Politics of the Roaring Twenties The United States seeks postwar normality and isolation. The standard of living soars amid labor unrest, immigration quotas, and the scandals of the Harding administration. Section 1 A Booming Economy Consumer goods fuel the business boom of the 1920s as Americas standard of living soars.

The Impact of the Automobile Henry Ford made cars affordable - Used assembly line 1908 - Model T hit the market (cost $825)

By 1920's - Model T came off the line every 10 seconds Henry Fords success Scientific management: approach to improving efficiency, in which experts looked at every step of a manufacturing process, trying to find ways to reduce time, effort and expense Bolstered employees by doubling their wages and reducing their work days

$2.35/day to $5/day 9 hours to 8 hours Gave weekends off The Impact of the Automobile Cars changed life - paved roads, gas stations, motels, shopping centers Route 66 from

Chicago to California The Impact of the Automobile 1920s 1st Automatic traffic signals used in Detroit 1927 Holland Tunnel opened to

connect New York City & New Jersey (1st underwater tunnel specifically designed for cars) Gave mobility to rural families, women, & young people The Impact of the Automobile

Enabled workers to live farther from jobs - Led to urban sprawl (spread of cities) Auto industry became economic base for some cities Boosted oil industry Late 1920s - 1 car for every 5 Americans 1927 The Model A

replaced the Model T Enabled customers to order a variety of colors Traveled faster & smoother 1923 1924 The Young Airplane Industry

Airplane industry started as mail service for U.S. Post Office Weather forecasting began - Planes carried radios& navigation tools 1926 Henry Ford built trimotor plane The Young Airplane Industry

Charles Lindbergh & Amelia Earhart flights helped promote airlines - 1927 - Charles Lindbergh became the 1st person to fly nonstop across the Atlantic - 1928 - Amelia Earhart became 1st women to fly nonstop across the Atlantic The Young Airplane Industry

1927 - Lockheed Company produced popular transport plane of the decade (Vega) 1927 - Nations 1st commercial airline formed (Pan American Airlines) - Brought cities closer together - Began transatlantic commercial flights

Americas Standard of Living Soars 1920s were prosperous times for America 1920 to 1929 Average annual income rose over 35%, from $522 to $705

People tired of sacrificing Ready to spend money New inventions - Refrigerator - Vacuum cleaner - Electric stove - Wrist watch 1921 Tellus Super model 20 1922 Gas Stove Refrigerator

Electrical Conveniences Prosperity was a result of cheap power 1920's - electricity and petroleum become widely available Widespread electricity made possible by Samual Insull - He formed GE Company with

Thomas Edison Electrical Conveniences Electricity along with petroleum helped to transform the nation Factories used electricity to run machines Development of alternating current made it possible

to distribute electricity over longer distances - Gave electricity to suburbs By end of 1920s, more homes begin to have electrical appliances Appliances made housework easier & freed women for other activities - Refrigerators , cooking ranges, & toasters Appliances coincided with trend of women working outside home The Dawn of Modern Advertising

Advertising agencies began hiring psychologists to learn to appeal to public Made brand names familiar nationwide Pushed luxuries as necessities The Dawn of Modern Advertising Results were impressive

- Say it with Flowers slogan doubled florists business between 1914 & 1924 - Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet caused people to choose cigarettes over candy - 1923 Listerine advertisements warned about the disastrous effects of halitosis The Dawn of Modern Advertising

Businesspeople began working with service groups (Rotary, Kiwanis, & lions) - Raised money for charities & boosted the image of the businessman - promoted selves as benefactors of society A Superficial Prosperity

Most Americans believed prosperity would last forever - Productivity increased, & businesses expanding - Several mergers in auto industry, steel, electrical equipment, utilities - Chain stores developed - National banks were allowed to create branches Not everyone became wealthy Consumer Revolution: a flood of new, affordable goods became available to the public Income gap between workers & managers grew - 1929 - 60% of Americans lived in poverty Two Major Groups Suffered

in the 1920s Farmers - food prices fell after World War I - New machines increased productions - Many farmers couldn't afford new machines - Drought and insects also damaged crops - Government refused to help farmers Labor - violent strikes following WWI led to anti-union feelings across the country - Court rulings caused the unions to lose power Buying Goods on Credit

Businesses began provided easy credit to lure customers - a dollar down and a dollar forever Installment plan - pay for goods over extended period with interest Bull Market: a period of rising stock prices Buying on Margin: buying stocks, only paying a small percentage of the purchase price Banks provided money at low interest rates

Some economists & business owners thought installment buying was becoming excessive - Thought it was a sign of fundamental weakness behind superficial prosperity Most focused their attention on the present & didnt worry about the future - Thought prosperity would last forever Postwar Trends World War I left Americans exhausted - Debate over League of Nations had divides them

Economy adjusted as cost of living doubled - Farm & factory orders were down - Soldiers took jobs from women& minorities - Farmers & factory workers suffered Postwar Trends Many Americans responded to the stressful conditions by becoming fearful of outsiders - Nativism swept

nation - prejudice against foreign-born people - Isolationism became popular - pulling away from world affairs Fear of Communism The spread of Communism was perceived as a threat to America (The

Red Scare) Communism economic, political system, single-party government - ruled by dictator - no private property Fear of Communism 1919 - Vladimir Lenin & the Bolsheviks set up Communist state in

Russia U.S. Communist Party formed (70, 000 radicals joined) - Some Industrial Workers of the World join Labor Unrest and the Red Scare American government

feared Communism would spread to the U.S. through immigrants Feared infiltration of Anti-Capitalists People who refused to work Propagand Subversives a poster Critics of government

(1921): Lenin Supporters of free Lived, speech Lenin Lives, Anyone who was unLenin Will American (pacifists, draftVladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky started Live.the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, a violent and dodgers, conscientious murderous overthrow of the Romanov Czars. The objectors) provisional government gave power to the working class on whose back the elite earned its wealth.

Fear of Communism Several bombs were mailed to government & businesses - People feared Red conspiracy Fear of Communism Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer took

action - Appointed J. Edgar Hoover as special assistant - They hunted down Communists, socialists, & anarchists (Palmer Raids) - Anarchists oppose any form of government - Raids trampled civil rights & failed to find evidence of conspiracy Sacco and Vanzetti

Red Scare fed fear of foreigners, ruined reputations & wrecked lives The two most famous victims were Italian immigrants Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti Shoemaker & fish peddler who evaded

the draft during WWI (Anarchists) Sacco and Vanzetti 1920 - Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested & charged with the robbery & murder of a factory paymaster & his guard in South Braintree Massachusetts Prosecutors only had circumstantial evidence They provided alibis

Judge made prejudicial remarks throughout the trial A painting of Sacco and Vanzetti during their trial. Sacco and Vanzetti Jury found them guilty & sentenced them to death - There were widespread protests in U.S. & abroad - 1927 Sacco & Vanzetti were executed in the electric chair 1961- new ballistics test proved that the pistol

found on Sacco was used to kill the guard (Couldnt prove who actually pulled the trigger) Limiting Immigration Anti-Immigrant Attitudes had been growing in America since the 1880s Southern & Eastern European immigrants

Need for unskilled labor decreased in the U.S. after WWI Nativists believed fewer immigrants were needed since there were fewer unskilled jobs available, Also thought immigrant anarchists and socialists were Communist The Klan Rises Again

Bigots used anticommunism as an excuses to harass groups unlike themselves 1915 - KKK was revived in Georgia - Called for a racially & morally pure America KKK opposed blacks, Catholics, Jews, immigrants, unions, & saloons - Beat and killed minorities The Klan Rises Again

Members were paid to recruit new members - 1924 - 4.5 million members - Indiana had the most Klan members Klan dominated politics in many states Violence led to a decrease in power - Membership dropped by the end on the 1920s The Quota System

1919 - 1921, number of immigrants grew almost 600% 141,000 to 805,000 Nativsists pressured Congress to limit immigration from certain countries (Southern & Eastern Europe) The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 set up a Quota system - Established the maximum number of people who could enter the U.S. from each country - sharply reduced European immigration The Quota System

1924 Amended law limited European arrivals to 2% of number of its national living in the U.S. in 1890 - Discriminated against southern, eastern Europeans (Didnt arrive until after 1890) The Quota System

Law also prohibited Japanese immigration; Caused ill will between U.S. & Japan Japan had faithfully kept the Gentlemens agreement to limit emigration to the U.S. that had been negotiated by Teddy Roosevelt in 1907 Quota system didnt apply to Western Hemisphere - Many Canadians & Mexicans entered A Time of Labor Unrest Government

didnt allow strikes in wartime - 1919 over 3,000 strikes Employers were against raises& unions; - Labeled strikers as Communists The Boston Police Strike

Boston police went on strike over raises & the right to unionize - Hadnt received a raise since beginning of WWI) Mass. Governor Calvin Coolidge ended strike by calling out the National Guard - there is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime Replaced strikers with new policemen

The Boston Police Strike People praised Coolidge for saving Boston if not the nation from communism - He was nominated as Warren G. Hardings running mate in the 1920 election The Steel Mill Strike

September1919 - Steel workers went on strike for the right to negotiate shorter working hours & a living wage - Also wanted union recognition & Collective bargaining rights Steel Companies hired strike beaters & used force (Police, Federal troops & state militias)

The Steel Mill Strike Used propaganda to link strikers to communist Late negotiated Talks deadlocked Wilson appealed to both sides & the strike

ended January 1920 1923 - report on the harsh working conditions shocked the public Steel companies agreed to a 8-hour day but no union The Coal Miners Strike

1919 - John L. Lewis became head of United Mine Workers of America Led strike & defied a court order to return to work Coal minors accepted arbitration - Miners received 27% wage increase - Lewis became national hero Labor Movement Loses Appeal

1920s - union membership dropped from over 5 million to 3.5 million Immigrants were willing to work for less Hard to organize workers due to different languages Farmers who moved to the city were used to relying on themselves Less than 1% of African Americans & just over 3% whites were in union Section 2 The Harding Presidency The Harding administration

appeals to Americas desire for calm and peace after the war, but results in scandal The 1920 Election Warren G. Harding elected president Wouldn't rock the boat Said America

needed normalcy Harding Struggles for Peace 1921 - President Harding hosted Washington Naval Conference Problems arose concerning arms control, war debts, & the reconstruction of war torn countries after WWI Invited major powers, Russia wasnt invited due to communist government Harding Struggles for

Peace Sec. of State Charles Evans Hughes proposed disarmament & others agreed Harding Struggles for Peace 1928 Fifteen countries signed the Kellog-Briand Pact

- Nations denounced war as national policy - Pact was ineffective since it didnt provide for means of enforcement High Tariffs and Reparations Britain & France owed the U.S. $10 billion in war

debts Could pay money by selling goods to the U.S. or by collecting reparations from Germany 1922 - Fordney-McCumber Tariff raised taxes on U.S. imports to 60% - Britain, France couldnt sell enough goods to repay U.S. Germany defaulted on its reparation payments High Tariffs and Reparations Dawes Plan - U.S.

investors lent reparations money to Germany - Britain, France repaid U.S. Dawes Plan caused resentment on all sides - Britain & France didnt think the U.S. paid its fair share for WWI - U.S. thought Britain & France were financially irresponsible Scandal Hits Hardings Administration

Harding favored a limited government role in business,& social reform He believed that government was getting the way of people's lives and businesses Created Bureau of the Budget to help the

government more efficiently Scandal Hits Hardings Administration Had capable men in cabinet Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes went on

to become chief justice of Supreme Court , Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover had done great job distributing foods & refugees in WWI Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon cut taxes & reduced national debt Scandal Hits Hardings Administration Harding also appointed the Ohio gang His corrupt friends who

caused him embarrassment - Were unqualified - They stole money from the government Ohio Gang hurt Harding's presidency The Teapot Dome Scandal Teapot Dome scandal naval oil reserves were used for personal gain Government had set aside oil-rich public at Teapot Dome Wyoming & Elk Hills California for

use by the U.S. Navy Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall leased land to private companies - He received over $ 400,000 in loans, bonds, & cash The Teapot Dome Scandal Fall became the is first person to be convicted of a

felony while holding a cabinet post - Fined $100,000 & spent a year in prison The Teapot Dome Scandal Harding tried to help

his image by going on a speaking tour in the west - Had heart attack & Died on August 2, 1923 VP Calvin Coolidge assumed presidency - Restores faith in government 1924 Coolidge was elected president American Industries Flourish

Calvin Coolidge wanted to minimize government interference in business the chief business of the American people is business He favored policies that would keep taxes down & business profits up , & give businesses more credit to expand Coolidges approach worked in the 1920s - Lower income taxes gave people more money to spend - Wages rose and new technology

increased productivity THE ROARING TWENTIES LIFE & CULTURE IN AMERICA IN THE 1920S Demographical Changes Demographics: statistics that describe a

population. Real Time Demographics Migration North African Americans moving north at rapid pace. Why? Jim Crow laws

New job opportunities in north 1860 93% in south 1930 80% in Struggles: south Faced hatred from whites Forced low wages

Other Migration Post-WWI: European refugees to America Limited immigration in 1920s from Europe and Asia. Employers turned to Mexican and Canadian immigrants to work. As a result: barrios created Spanish speaking neighborhoods. THE TWENTIES WOMAN

After the tumult of World War I, Americans were looking for a little fun in the 1920s. Women were independent and achieving greater freedoms. Chicago 1926 ie. right to vote, more employment,

freedom of the auto THE FLAPPER Challenged the traditional ways. Revolution of manners and morals. A Flapper was an emancipated young woman who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes.

NEW ROLES FOR WOMEN Early 20th Century teachers Many women entered the workplace as nurses, teachers, librarians, & secretaries. Earned less than men and were prevented from obtaining certain jobs. THE CHANGING

AMERICAN FAMILY American birthrates declined for several decades before the 1920s. Trend continues in 1920s with development of birth control. Margaret Sanger Margaret Sanger and other founders of the American Birth Control League - 1921

Birth control activist Founder of American Birth Control League ie. Planned Parenthood MODERN FAMILY EMERGES Marriage was based on romantic love. Women managed the household and finances.

Children were not considered laborers/ wage earners anymore. Seen as developing children who needed nurturing and education PROHIBITION PROHIBITION

One example of the clash between city & farm was the passage of the 18th Amendment in 1920. Launched era known as Prohibition Made it illegal to make, distribute,

sell, transport or liquor. Prohibition lasted from 1920 to 1933 when it was repealed by the 21st Amendment SUPPORT FOR PROHIBITION Reformers had long believed alcohol led to crime, child & wife abuse, and accidents Supporters were

largely from the rural south and west Legislating Morality Problems: Carrie Nation, an aggressive Temperance advocate often entered

private property to destroy alcohol paraphernalia. There is a now a bar named for her in San Jose. Never consistently enforced Bootlegging: illegal sale of alcohol Bars turned into speakeasies, secret nightclubs Corruption of police and government officials

Expensive to prosecute Alcohol consumption increased 300% Poster supporting prohibition

SPEAKEASIES AND BOOTLEGGERS Many Americans did not believe drinking was a sin Most immigrant groups were not willing to give up drinking To obtain liquor, drinkers went underground to hidden saloons known as speakeasies People also bought liquor from bootleggers

who smuggled it in from Canada, Cuba and the West Indies All of these activities became closely affiliated with Speakeasies Once the alcohol had been confiscated, it had to be destroyed. Most often kegs and bottles were broken at the raid site and poured down city gutters. Just as often, conscientious, lawabiding citizens were waiting down the street with empty jars, bottles, and buckets to collect the wasted moonshine.

ORGANIZED CRIME Prohibition contributed to the growth of organized crime in every major city Al Capone Chicago, Illinois famous bootlegger Scarface 60 million yr (bootleg alone)

Capone took control of the Chicago liquor business by killing off his competition Talent for avoiding jail 1931 sent to prision for taxevasion. Al Capone was finally convicted on tax evasion charges in 1931 Racketeering Illegal profit.

business scheme to make Gangsters bribed police or govt officials. Forced local businesses a fee for protection. No fee - gunned down or businesses blown to bits St. Valentines Day Massacre Valentines Day February 14, 1929

Rival between Al Capone and Bugs Moran Capone South Side Italian gang Moran North Side Irish gang Bloody murder of 7 of Morans men. Capones men dressed as cops GOVERNMENT FAILS TO CONTROL LIQUOR

Prohibition failed: Why? Government did not budget enough money to enforce the law The task of enforcing Prohibition fell to 1,500 poorly paid federal agents --clearly an impossible task!

Federal agents pour wine down a sewer SUPPORT FADES, PROHIBITION REPEALED By the mid-1920s, only 19% of Americans supported Prohibition Many felt Prohibition caused more

problems than it solved What problems did it cause? The 21st Amendment finally repealed Prohibition in 1933 Science and Religion Clash A. Fundamentalists believe that the

biblical account of creation is true. 1. Aimee Simple McPherson: radio evangelist B. Many others believe in Darwins theory of evolution. A Clash of Values Traditional

Christian, religious, fundamentalism The way things always were Consistency Anti-Immigrant, Nativist Strict social activity: no drinking, prostitution, dancing, smoking, etc. Women stay at home

Modern Experimental Open to new ideas Looser social activity World travel

Acceptance of new fashion Sexually active Women participate equally Rebellious Young SCOPES TRIAL Scopes was a biology teacher who dared to teach his students that man derived from lower species In March 1925, Tennessee

passed the nations first law that made it a crime to teach evolution: Butler Law The ACLU promised to defend any teacher willing to challenge the law John Scopes did SCOPES TRIAL The ACLU hired Clarence Darrow,

the most famous trial lawyer of the era and an agnostic, to defend Scopes The prosecution countered with William Jennings Bryan, the threetime Democratic presidential nominee and fundamentalist Darrow

SCOPES TRIAL Trial opened on July 10,1925 and became a national sensation In an unusual move, Darrow called Bryan to the stand as an expert on the bible key question: Should the bible be interpreted literally? Under intense questioning, Darrow got Bryan to admit that the bible can be interpreted in different ways

Nonetheless, Scopes was found guilty and fined $100 Bryan Darrow Scopes Monkey Trial Bryan "I do not think about things I don't think about." Darrow "Do you think about the things you do think about?" Bryan "Well, sometimes."

EDUCATION AND POPULAR CULTURE During the 1920s, developments in education had a powerful impact on the nation. Enrollment in high schools quadrupled between 1914 and 1926. Public schools met the challenge of educating millions of immigrants

SCHOOLS AND THE MASS MEDIA A. 1. 2. 3. Public High Schools take on new roles in preparing students for the future. Vocational schools for industrial jobs. Home Economics for future home makers Traditional to prepare college bound students.

Mass Media Increases 1920s in Mass media during the Print and broadcast methods of Newspapers: communication. Examples:

Newspapers Magazines Radio Movies 27 million to 39 million Increase of 42% Motion Pictures: 40 million to 80 million Increase of 100% Radios: 60,000 to 10.2 million Increase of 16,983%

EXPANDING NEWS COVERAGE Literacy increased in the 1920s as a result Newspaper and magazine circulation rose. By the end of the 1920s

10 American magazines -- including Readers Digest, Saturday Evening Post,Time boasted circulations of over 2 million a year. Tabloids created RADIO COMES OF AGE

Although print media was popular, radio was the most powerful communications medium to emerge in the 1920s. News was delivered faster and to a larger audience. Americans could hear the voice of the president or listen to Charlie Chaplin Silent

film actor http://www.youtube.com/ watch? v=DvVQOOu1AUY&NR=1 ENTERTAINMENT AND ARTS Even before sound, movies offered a means of escape through romance and comedy

ie. talkies Walt Disney's animated Steamboat Willie marked the debut of Mickey Mouse. It was a seven minute long black and white cartoon. First animated with sound: Steamboat Willie (1928) By 1930 millions of

Americans went to the movies each week Movies 1. The Jazz Singer staring Al Jolson becomes the first talkie. Icons of 1920s AMERICAN HEROES OF THE 20s

In 1929, Americans spent $4.5 billion on entertainment. (includes sports) People crowded into baseball games to see their heroes Babe Ruth was a

larger than life American hero who played for Yankees He hit 60 homers in 1927. II. SPORTS AND HEROES A. 1. 2. BASEBALL: George Herman Babe Ruth of the New York

Yankees. Hit 60 homeruns in 1927. Leroy Satchel Page of the Negro Leagues. II. SPORTS AND HEROES B. In Boxing: Jack Dempsey turned boxing into a legitimate sport.

William Harrison "Jack" Dempsey ("The Manassa Mauler") (June 24, 1895 May 31, 1983) was an American boxer who held the world heavyweight title from 1919 to 1926. Dempsey's aggressive style and exceptional punching power made him one of the most popular boxers in history. Many of his fights set financial and attendance records, including the first million dollar gate. He is listed #10 on The Ring's list of alltime heavyweights and #7 among its Top 100 Greatest Punchers. He is a member of the International

Boxing Hall of Fame. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jmaPxa-eZss SPORTS AND HEROES Gertrude Caroline Ederle (October 23, 1905 November 30, 2003) was an American competitive swimmer. In 1926, she became the first woman to swim across the English Channel.

MUSIC OF THE 1920s Famed composer George Gershwin merged traditional elements with American Jazz. Someone to Watch Over Me Embraceable You I Got Rhythm Gershwin

EDWARD KENNEDY DUKE ELLINGTON In the late 1920s, Duke Ellington, a jazz pianist and composer, led his ten-piece orchestra at the famous Cotton Club. Band: The Washingtonians

Ellington is known as one of Americas greatest composers. Mood Indigo LOUIS ARMSTRONG Jazz was born in the early 20th century

In 1922, a young trumpet player named Louis Armstrong joined the Creole Jazz Band. Louis Armstrong: the single most important and influential musician in the history of Jazz. BESSIE SMITH Bessie Smith, blues singer, was perhaps the most

outstanding vocalist of the decade She achieved enormous popularity and by 1927 she became the highestpaid black artist in the world BILLIE HOLIDAY Born Eleanora Fagan Gough One of the most

recognizable voices of the 20s and 30s. Embraceable You God Bless the Child Strange Fruit 1920s DANCING Charleston Swing Dancing Dance Marathons More Fads

Flagpole sitting: Where young people would sit for hours and even days on top of a flagpole. (The record: 21 days!) Walt Disney

Walt Disney only attended one year of high school. He was the voice of Mickey Mouse for two decades. As a kid he loved drawing and painting. He won 32 Academy Awards. ART OF THE 1920s Georgia

O Keeffe captured the grandeur of New York using intensely colored canvases Radiator Building, Night, New York , 1927 Georgia O'Keeffe WRITERS OF THE 1920s Writer F. Scott Fitzgerald coined the phrase Jazz

Age to describe the 1920s Fitzgerald wrote Paradise Lost and The Great Gatsby The Great Gatsby reflected the emptiness of New York elite society WRITERS OF THE 1920 Ernest Hemingway, became one

of the best-known authors of the era Wounded in World War I In his novels, The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms, he criticized the glorification of war Moves to Europe to escape the life in the United States. Lost Generation (Gertrude Stein) Hemingway - 1929 Group of people disconnected from

their country and its values. His simple, straightforward style of writing set the literary standard THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE Great Migration saw hundreds of thousands of African Americans move north to big

cities 1920: 5 million of the nations 12 million blacks (over 40%) lived in cities Migration of the Negro by Jacob Lawrence HARLEM, NEW YORK Harlem, NY became the largest black urban community Harlem suffered from overcrowding,

unemployment and poverty Home to literary and artistic revival known as the Harlem Renaissance LANGSTON HUGHES Missouri-born Langston Hughes was

the movements best known poet Many of his poems described the difficult lives of working-class blacks Thank you Maam Some of his poems were put to music, especially jazz and blues Zora Neale Hurston

Write novels, short essays, short stories Traveled throughout the South in a battered car collecting folk tales, songs, and prayers of black southerners Published these in her book, Mules and Men

Harlem Renaissance African-Americans performers. 1. Paul Robeson a major dramatic actor. Widely acclaimed for his performance in Othello and in The Emperor Jones. 2. Cab Callaway: popularized scat or jazz singing. AFRICAN AMERICAN GOALS

Founded in 1909, the NAACP urged African Americans to protest racial violence W.E.B Dubois, a founding member, led a march of 10,000 black men in NY to protest violence Back to Africa Marcus Garvey and the UNIA

United Negro Improvement Association challenged the NAACP and idea of racial equality Criticized passivity of early Civil Rights activists Du Bois and Washington

Advocated militant racial separation and a return to the African homeland Instituted Liberia, a home for freed slaves Garvey, himself, was criticized for dividing the movement A Jamaican by birth, Garvey prompted thousands to leave the U.S.

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