U.S. History

U.S. History

U.S. HISTORY STANDARD 3 ADAM BLALOCK STANDARD 3 Analyze the causes of the American Revolution. STANDARD 3A Explain how the French and Indian War and

the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR Beginning in 1689, Great Britain and France fought one another in a series of wars for control of European and colonial trade. The French and Indian War (1754-1763) was the last of a series of wars fought between the countries.

The war began in North America as a result of ongoing British-American expansion into the Ohio River Valley, which was also claimed by France. The French persuaded their Indian allies to join them in preventing further settlement in the disputed region west of the Appalachian Mountains. 1763 TREATY OF PARIS Great Britain eventually won the war. The 1763 Treaty of Paris was the negotiated

settlement that ended the French and Indian War. Its provisions forced France to turn over control of Canada to Great Britian. France also surrendered its claim to all land east of the Mississippi River, with the exception of the city of New Orleans. THE RESULTS The outcome of the war strained the colonial and British

relationship and fueled the calls for independence by the colonists. The colonists felt empowered by their military contributions to the war and also felt disrespected by the restrictions and tax burden placed on them after the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed. The spoils of victory were not enjoyed by the colonists, who believed their militia groups had contributed greatly to the British military success. As a result, the tension created by the French and Indian

War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for THE RESULTS The end of the French and Indian War brought Great Britain great benefits. The British were now in control of the largest empire in the world and were in a dominant position in Europe. However, over 70 years of fighting various wars had nearly bankrupted the British government.

The French and Indian War had more than doubled the British national debt. As a result, those living in the British isles endured heavy taxation, high inflation, and unemployment during this time. THE RESULTS The British government saw the prosperity of its American colonies as a source of revenue to help pay the war debts. The British government hoped to lower colonial

administrative costs by passing the cost on to their colonies through enforcement of existing tariffs or taxes. To ensure that smuggling would be prosecuted, an extensive customs service was established. THE RESULTS The Kings prosecutors found it difficult to obtain smuggling convictions in colonial courts and created viceadmiralty courts empowered to identify, try, and convict suspected smugglers.

These courts were superior to the colonial courts and did not have a jury, but instead a panel of military officers who served as judges. The American colonists believed that the use of courts without juries represented a violation of English civil rights. STANDARD 3B Explain colonial response to the Proclamation

of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in the Sons and Daughters of Liberty and the Committees of Correspondence. INTRODUCTION Following the French and Indian War, the British began trying to re-establish control over the colonies through policies such as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts. To pay for years of war, Parliament was determined to

enforce pre-existing British trade laws that had been only casually enforced, such as the Navigation Acts. Smuggling goods into America had been lucrative for many businessmen in the colonies. INTRODUCTION The British government was physically removed from her American colonies and lacked an understanding of a new psychology of self-sufficiency and individualism that had developed in the colonies. British actions to re-establish control over the American colonies,

after such a long period of Salutary Neglect, set up a series of responses and counter-responses by the American colonials and the British government, which ultimately led to the American Revolution. PROCLAMATION OF 1763 Pontiacs War To curtail further American Indian attacks, Parliament passed the Proclamation of 1763 in an attempt to prevent any more American colonists from settling beyond

the Appalachian Mountains. The new law angered colonists and wealthy colonial land agents as they believed they were entitled to the land they had helped to secure through fighting with the British in the French and Indian War. The British were unable to enforce the law and Americans ignored the law and settled in the Ohio River Valley STAMP ACT Sugar Act The tax was collected on every document or newspaper

printed or used in the colonies. The Stamp Act affected everyone in colonial America. The law required that a stamp be affixed to the taxable property to show that the tax had been paid. In addition, the tax was to be paid with hard currency (not colonial paper money) and would be enforced through the Vice-Admiralty courts. STAMP ACT

COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE The colonial reaction was swift and widespread. Their central argument against the new tax was that the colonies did not have representation in Parliament. Therefore, taxes imposed by Parliament on the colonies represented a violation of English civil liberties. The Massachusetts colonial Assembly created a Committee of Correspondence to efficiently communicate with the other colonies on matters of concern. New York invited the other colonies to send delegates to a meeting

and organized the Stamp Act Congress to draft formal petitions of protest to Parliament. SONS OF LIBERTY In Boston, Samuel Adams organized the Sons of Liberty to protest the law. These protests often turned violent. Tax collectors were hung in effigy and their property destroyed. Ships purportedly carrying stamps were denied entry to

colonial ports. Perhaps most significantly, New York merchants organized a boycott of British goods. The rising tide of violence in the colonies and the economic effects of the boycotts were instrumental in the repeal of the Stamp Act in March 1766. DAUGHTERS OF LIBERTY Parliament, under the advice of the Lord Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer (similar to the US Secretary of the

Treasury), passed in 1767 a new series of tax laws, expanded the Customs Service, and the number of Admiralty Courts. Colonial organization and protests were renewed. To replace boycotted British cloth, the women of Boston organized the Daughters of Liberty. The organization spun yarn into thread, wove cloth on home looms, and was instrumental in maintaining the American boycott of British goods. TOWNSHEND ACTS Protests and riots in Boston were so ferocious that customs officials demanded and received military

protection. However, the presence of the British Army and Navy in Boston only served to intensify the animosity between the British government and the colonists. As a result of the protests, the Townshend Acts were partially repealed in 1770. BOSTON TEA PARTY However, a tax on tea was left in place by Parliament. In 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act.

The colonists believed that Parliament was trying to increase tax revenue by getting the colonists to more readily accept cheap tea. On December 16, 1773, members of the Sons of Liberty boarded the three tea ships and destroyed the cargo. INTOLERABLE ACTS The Intolerable Acts, as the punishment laws were known in the colonies, were designed to make an example of Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. There were 5 parts:

1. Boston Port closed until the value of the destroyed tea was repaid 2. Massachusetts colonial government suspended and placed directly under the control of the royal governor appointed by the king 3. British officials accused of crimes would be tried in England rather than in Massachusetts 4. Renewed the Quartering Act of soldiers in the colonies 5. Quebec Act expanded the border of Quebec into land claimed by other colonies

RESULTS Instead of forcing Massachusetts into submission, the Intolerable Acts effectively unified the colonies to work as a group against the British government. The experience of Massachusetts could easily be the experience of other colonies. The colonists believed that Parliament had once again acted outside the English Constitution and violated the civil rights of the British citizens living in America.

STANDARD 3C Explain the importance of Thomas Paines Common Sense to the movement for independence. COMMON SENSE Common Sense was published anonymously by Thomas Paine in January 1776. Initially 100,000 copies were printed, and it is generally

believed that the short work was either read or heard by almost every American colonist. Paine wrote a clearly worded rationale for independence that the common man could understand. Paines argument helped to persuade many colonists who were undecided to support the cause of independence. COMMON SENSE The title, Common Sense, was intended to make people of the colonies think about the absurdity of a large continent

(America) being controlled by a small island (England). He also asked readers to consider why they would remain loyal to a corrupt king whose laws were unreasonable. Prior to Common Senses publication, most colonists blamed Parliament for their unfavorable situation not the king. COMMON SENSE Paine effectively shifted the blame from Parliament to King George III. He also urged reluctant colonists to follow the course of

independence through his blunt prose written in the vernacular of the time. A famous line from the fifty-page pamphlet is, tis time to part.

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