U.S. Imperialism

U.S. Imperialism

U.S. Imperialism 1900-1914 Reasons for Imperialism Colony: When a country settles another area of the world in order to o 1. Exploit natural resources o 2. Bring religion o 3. have strategic military bases

By 1900 much of the world had been carved up by Western Europe There were economic, social, and military reasons for imperialism Social Reasons One social reason was many felt in Europe and America that it was the White mans burden to Civilize the world

Europe believed that colonizing Africa and Asia would allow them to teach the natives how to be civilized Another social reason in America was that by 1900 the frontier is considered closed and Imperialism was seen as the new frontierso Imperialism is seen as a way to expand the frontier Economic Reasons Mercantilism is the belief that in order for a

country to gain wealth they must 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gain raw materials by colonizing Asia and Africa Industrialize Export raw materials to countries that do not have them Have a high tariff to force your people to buy what your country

makes Sell finished good to your colonies and prevent them from buying from other countries Military Reasons Strategic areas around the world were taken in order to o protect trade o provide coal refueling areas for warships

T. Roosevelt felt that the U.S. should strengthen the navy by building modern warships He oversaw the construction of the Great White Fleet Roosevelt ordered the fleet to sail around the world to demonstrate Americas global reach European

Imperialism Scramble for Africa Britain, France, Belgium, Italy, and Portugal will colonize Africa for its natural resources This was made possible because of the development of the machine gun and quinine Germany will eventually begin to colonize Africa as well in order to demonstrate their strength Britain and France will oppose German expansion and this will lead to tension

Dividing of China Russia, Germany, Japan, Britain, and France will seize ports in China and demand that their citizens have special privileges in these trading ports. The Chinese emperor became a puppet in the hands of these foreign powers which led to hatred of foreigners among the Chinese Eventually the Chinese will rebel against the powers, this is known as the Boxer Rebellion The Boxers will massacre 300 foreigners, this will

lead to an allied army made up of all foreign groups (including Americans) to attack and kill the rebels Boxers Open Door Policy 1. 2. 3. America wanted to protect new territories in the

Philippines and its citizens in China America also wanted to trade with China and not be pushed out by European powers The Open Door Policy was the American plan it stated a) b) c) Was created by a note sent from Secretary of State John Hay, known as the Open Door Note

China may trade with the U.S. and other nations and not be carved up like Africa China was still exploited by European nations and the U.S. for resources and markets Imperialism American Imperialism Early U.S. Imperialism

In 1867 secretary of state William Seward purchased Alaska from the Russians in what was known as Sewards Folly because everyone thought it was worthless Seward laughed last

however when there was gold discovered and later oil.

Hawaii In 1898, before the Spanish American War, Hawaii was ruled by Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii was a key place for American Ships to stop for provisions on the way to Asia However because of a U.S. sugar tariff the American Planters deposed her and asked America to annex

Hawaii Cleveland was reluctant, but McKinley will annex the island America will use Pearl Harbor, the best natural harbor in the pacific to base its Pacific Fleet The Spanish American War American War

1. Cubans will rebel against poor Spanish rule 1. Spain sent 150,000 troops 2. Moved Cubans to concentration camps 2. Yellow Journalists such as Joseph

Pulitzer, and William Randolph Hearst exaggerated the stories of Spanish atrocities Many wanted the U.S. to take a tougher stance against Spain The U.S. sent the Battleship Maine to observe events in Cuba When the Maine exploded in Havana Harbor in Cuba the U.S. blamed Spain, even though it was an accident, soon after war is

declared 3. 4. 5. American troops were sent to Cuba and easily defeated the unprepared Spanish The most famous battle will be the Battle of San Juan Hill in which Teddy Roosevelt and his Rough Riders will

storm the hill giving him fame and war experience This will be the first post Civil War conflict for America and many will see it as an example of

America moving past the Civil War and unifying - Spheres of Influence Philippines Commodore Dewey was

sent to the Philippines even before the war started and quickly destroyed the Spanish navy in Manila Bay With this destruction Spain lost its final colonies in the Pacific and the Caribbean ending 400 years of colonialism The U.S. will seize the

Philippines making it a U.S. territory The Filipinos will rebel after their promised selfrule never happened The End of the War The U.S. forced Spain to sign the treaty of Paris 1898 which gave Cuba its independence and the Philippines, Guam, and

Puerto Rico to the U.S. Some wanted to annex Cuba, but the Teller Amendment was added to McKinleys war message which said the U.S. could not annex Cuba There were many who felt it was unsafe for Cuba to be on its own so the U.S. would maintain a naval

base in Guantanamo Bay Cuba Americas Foreign Policy After the Spanish American War Big Stick Diplomacy Roosevelt believed in big stick diplomacy (speak softly and carry a big stick) This was the idea that all of Americas actions should

come with a threat of force Examples include the Venezuela incident in 1902 where Britain and Germany blockaded Venezuela over debts owed America added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine which stated The United States will intervene in conflicts between European countries and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans

press their claims directly. In the end the European nations backed down Panama Canal To get the land for the Panama canal we will ask Columbia, they will say no. So we will encourage a revolution in Panama, after they form a new government we get the land in payment.

In 1904 we will begin the project and it will be complete in 1914. This will greatly strengthen the U.S. position in the world because we will be in control of the canal Russo-Japanese War In 1908 Japan will attack Russia in order to gain land and better access to Manchuria (northern China) No eastern nation had ever defeated a

western nation Roosevelt feared that would upset the balance of power in Asia Roosevelt arbitrates the dispute, Japan is given land and Roosevelt gets a Nobel Peace Prize Dollar Diplomacy This is the idea that American will use its economic power to give money and guarantee loans in Latin America and Asia in order to get

friendly governments This sometimes involved using American military to overthrow unfriendly governments first like in Nicaragua Moral Diplomacy This was the idea promoted by Wilson that the U.S. would only support nations whose moral beliefs were similar to Americas Generally it was used to support nations with democracies and oppose un-democratic nations

This was supported by the idea of American Exceptionalism This will help lead to a minor conflict with Mexico during the Mexican Revolution This conflict will lead to Poncho Villa attacking New Mexican towns and the American army under general Jack Pershing entering Mexico to hunt down Villa

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