Too little water Too much water Water environment Water quality Texas Legislative Background Freshwater inflow needs for bays & estuaries (1980s) Senate Bill 1: water resource planning & management (1997)
Senate Bill 2: the science bill (2001) Instream flow data collection and evaluation program Methodologies to determine flow conditions in Texas rivers and streams necessary to support a sound ecological environment Senate Bill 3: the implementation bill (2007) The who, when, and how of eflow implementation in Texas TCEQ must adopt the recommended standards by June 2011 3D stream
Blue Line The study of ecology requires (and adds) complexity and nuance The real thing ? River Continuum Concept
Flow Biota Habitat the natural flow regime Rate of Change
Magnitude Duration Timing Not depicted: frequency flow components (NRC 2005) An example instream flow prescription
Big Sandy Creek near Big Sandy, Tx An Environmental Flow Regime USGS Gage 08019500, Big Sandy Creek near Big Sandy Season Subsistence Base Winter
20 cfs 73 cfs Spring 9 cfs 33 cfs Summer
8 cfs 15 cfs Fall 8 cfs 22 cfs Pulse 1 per season
Trigger: 358 cfs Volume: 5,932 af Duration: 10 days 2 per season Trigger: 313 cfs Volume: 5,062 af Duration: 13 days 1 per season Trigger: 50 cfs Volume: 671 af Duration: 6 days 2 per season
Trigger: 130 cfs Volume: 2,189 af Duration: 9 days cfs = cubic feet per second , af = acre-feet www.tceq.com Data Sources TCEQ Water Rights Points USGS Gages
NHDPlus Bringing the Data Together USGS Water Resources Region 12 TCEQs Need Water Withdrawals Not Near Gages How to assess the contribution of a withdrawal on a tributary to an environmental flow defined on the main stem river?
Gages on the Trinity River in the DFW Metroplex River Reach between Gages Trinity River Branches Drainage Area = 2459 sq. miles Elm Fork West Fork
Drainage Area = 6106 sq. miles Trinity River Mean Annual Flows Elm Fork, 46% flow West Fork, 54% flow Trinity River
Elm Fork Attributes Length = 28.39 km Mean Flow = 670 cfs Max Elev = 130.93 m Mean Velocity = 1.52 ft/sec Min Elev = 121.25m Slope = 0.34m/km or 0.034% Trinity River Attributes Length = 9.39 km Mean Flow = 1493 cfs
Max Elev = 121.25 m Mean Velocity = 1.86 ft/sec Min Elev = 118.78m Slope = 0.26m/km or 0.026% Kinematic and Dynamic Waves Finding Pulse Lag Times in WiSKI 12 Hours Trinity River at Dallas
Elm Fork of Trinity River at Carrollton, 12 hours earlier Two time scales Image courtesy of Matt Ables, Kisters Analytical Solution of the Kinematic Wave Wave Celerity vs. Flow Velocity Wave celerity = 5/3 * flow velocity Length (km) Elm Fork
1.86 2.53 3.10 TOTAL Travel Time (hours) 10.23 2.76 12.99
Good agreement between travel time based on kinematic wave celerity and that based on time series data comparisons in Wiski. Muskingum-Cunge Method Kinematic wave plus some dynamic wave effects Muskingum-Cunge X Parameter Q B ck
Using NHD Mean Annual Flow Elm Fork near Trinity at Dallas Carrollton 652.7 cfs 1496.5 cfs 80 ft 170 ft 2.53 ft/s 3.10 ft/s
Q B ck Using USGSMean Annual Flow Elm Fork near Trinity at Dallas Carrollton 841.7 cfs 1804.3 cfs 80 ft 170 ft
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