Using Turnitin to explore the stories behind assessment ...

Using Turnitin to explore the stories behind assessment ...

For whom is the feedback intended? A student-focused critical analysis of Turnitin software as a tool for learning. EARLE ABRAHAMSON PFHEA S C H O O L O F H E A LT H S P O R T A N D B I O S C I E N C E UNI VERSI TY OF EAS T LONDON [email protected] D R J O N AT H A N M A N N S F H E A CENTRE FOR STUDENT SUCCESS UNIVERSITY OF EAST LONDON [email protected],UK Content 1. Contextualising the problem: theory and practice 2. Overview of the findings: student and tutor sentiment 3. Notable key comments 4. Recommendations 5. Theory into practice - MyFeedback We have our own d n a s le u r l il w You - Think like to v:enutsio dn . ns

eo nec like e it r W . 21stst century us. LOL! Another puppy picture on Facebook! Im tired from my night shift and havent had time to eat yet. We never discussed this on the BTEC. How does University work? This lecturer is asking for too much. I already know this. Tell me how to get a first instead. Writing? But Im no good at English (or speak it as a second language). I want to build a robust argument. I want to keep that similarity score down. Wikipedia is so convenient. Many students experience written assessments as a high-stakes activity academic under-preparedness inevitably leads to academic exclusion (Chokwe, 2013)

students underprepared status often serves to compound their marginalisation and oppression (Sanchez and Paulson, 2008, cited in Chokwe, 2013) Feedback has the potential to be viewed as remedial (Hattie and Timperley, 2007) Students may fail to understand or interpret their feedback (Duncan et al., 2007 and Taras, 2003) Developmental Developmental feedback feedback can can bridge bridge these these gaps. gaps. Students need to learn implicit academic rules Academic Literacy meaning making, identity, power, and authority the institutional nature of what counts as knowledge Academic Socialisation Students acquire the ways of talking, writing, thinking, and using literacy that typified members of a disciplinary or subject area community (Lea and Street, 2006) Feedback Feedback is is aa human human learning learning journey journey and and not not aa product. product. Listening to our students: Narratives and negotiation How do our students receive and interpret feedback? How can we use Turnitin to enhance feedback so that it becomes meaningful to our students? Do we question the intention and purpose of feedback? Are students inducted into receiving and understanding feedback? Feedback Feedback is

is aa partnership partnership between between tutor tutor and and student. student. Students and tutors: general sentiments Response Sentiment Per Respondent Type Type Negative Neutral Positive Student 37 38 68 Tutor 47 35 25 80 68 70 60 50 40 47 37 38 35

30 25 20 10 0 Negative Neutral Student Tutor positive Disparities between student and tutor opinion More positive sentiments from students than tutors More negative sentiment from tutors than students This does not reveal much about academic usefulness, though The The feedback feedback partnership partnership seems seems to to be be imbalanced. imbalanced. Notable key students comments: genre II have have noticed noticed that that even even though though II have have II have have put put aa lot lot of of effort effort in in II only only get

get like like one one sentence sentence back back in in feedback feedback to to me me II don't don't think think that that gives gives you you room room to to improve. improve. [I'd [I'd need need to to have] have] aa few few more more sentences sentences telling telling me me exactly exactly what what itit went went wrong wrong like like which which paragraph paragraph [or] [or] was was itit which which line line was was it. it. I think with our class in particular, some people have taken a lot of time out of education before they have come to uni. I've been out of education years before uni, and before this, well, I hadn't [written] a paragraph in God knows how many years. It's a massive step. II really really dont

dont know know where where II went went wrong, wrong, so so I'm I'm going going to to have have to to just just fix fix up up on on my my sentence sentence structures. structures. Make Make my my own own feedback, feedback, basically. basically. II don't don't feel feel as as though though Turnitin Turnitin helps helps at at all all with with academic academic writing. writing. II feel feel like like the the formatives, formatives, they they help help us us improve, improve, but but II dont dont know know how how itit helps. helps.

Feedback Feedback should should anchored anchored in in and and aligned aligned with with genre genre type. type. Notable key students comments: trust in the partnership? II have have one one problem problem with with Turnitin Turnitin itit said said II had had plagiarised plagiarised itit [the [the phrases phrases 'A1, 'A1, A2, A2, and and A3'] A3'] when when II hadn't hadn't itit said said that that II had had plagiarised plagiarised itit from from aa maths maths website website but but II never never did did that that In my opinion, I think Turnitin is basically trying to act smart saying trying to guess where you

plagiarised but it's not always correct, like, this came from my head, not Google OK? Feedback Feedback is is aa conversation conversation between between people people not not simply simply aa statement statement in in learning. learning. We're not statistics Turnitin is a statistic They're trying to turn everything now - students, lecturers, work, everything - into a number. They're not humanising things anymore. There's no interaction between people. Also, Also, what what II am am upset upset about about II was was told told that that II paraphrase paraphrase too too much. much. Well, Well, how how am am II going going to to come come [up] [up] with with my my own own ideas ideas when when I'm I'm being being scientific scientific or or medical? medical? [As

[As aa solution] solution] I'll I'll probably probably just just have have to to paraphrase paraphrase itit and and kind kind of of just just simplify. simplify. II don't don't know. know. Is Is that that aa solution? solution? II don't don't know. know. Turnitin Turnitin can can be be aa barrier barrier to to learning learning and and thinking. thinking. Notable key tutor comments: purpose is is Turnitin Turnitin aa plagiarism plagiarism tool tool or or is is itit aa development development tool? tool? I think in a sense you might have given students a way to check have I cheated well enough, or have I been caught? The fact that we change from using it as a staff tool for

catching people to one in a sense to give students the tools to self-regulate was a good hope. Students Students view view itit as as plagiarism plagiarism detection detection Whether Whether itit has has aa secondary secondary value value as as aa feedback feedback mechanism mechanism depends depends on on the the [kind [kind of] of] student student they they are are the the people people who who possibly possibly do do need need it, it, don't don't use use itit Different Different views views about about the the purpose purpose and and value value of of feedback. feedback. Expectation vs. experience

Critical Descriptive Students Big Big language language Sometimes poles apart Clarity Clarity Staff Avoid plagiarism Prove hypothesis Experience Expectation Feedback Feedback should should be be developmental. developmental. recommendations User Type Change request Outcome Related Study Have an option where tutors can receive qualitative and quantitative feedback from the student, which assesses and comments upon the feedback that the tutor originally made. Check other students ratings of the feedback they have received. This feature allows students to see the general rating that has been provided by their peer group.

Make the feedback process truly circular, so as to understand how to Yorke (2003) constantly improve my own feedback practices. Check feedback-ratings and opinions of tutors' feedback against those of Yorke (2003) the peer groups. student Be able to view an example text that is similar in purpose and content to the one students have to write, but is not an exact match. Understand how other people write these sorts of texts successfully, and easily access it through the submission/feedback window. tutor Be able to highlight any area of a student's text, and label it in accordance with a feedback category marker from predetermined series relating to the conventions of that academic writing genre. Students can, over time, identify how Bhatia they have developed specific aspects (2010) of their writing practice. tutor student Yang (2011) Theory in to practice Awarded large grant Students employed to help students Aligned with Academic Integrity policies Professional mentoring for student co-creators Custom Turnitin Quick Mark set with learning development focus Links to videos and other bespoke online tutoring resources Used 1,200 times so far Students feedback on their feedback 83% would recommend the service to others. Cultural Cultural changes,

changes, but but no no software software changes changes as as yet. yet. Amos, K., and McGowan, U. (2012). Integrating academic reading and writing skills development with core content in science and engineering. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. Available at: http://www.aldinhe.ac.uk/ojs/index.php?journal=jldhe&page=article&op=download&path%5B%5D=189&path%5B%5D=118b. Accessed 6 January 2017. Braine, G. (1997). Beyond word processing: networked computers in ESL writing classes. Computers and Composition, 14:1, pp. 4558. Butler AC, Roediger H. (2008). Feedback enhances the positive effects and reduces the negative effects of multiple-choice testing. Mem Cognit, 36, pp. 604-616. Cho, K. & Schunn, C. D. (2007). Scaffolded writing and rewriting in the discipline: a web-based reciprocal peer review system. Computers & Education, 48, pp. 409426. Department for Business Innovation and Skills (2016a). Teaching Excellence Framework: Technical Consultation for Year Two. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/523340/bis-16-26 teaching-excellence-framework-techcon.pdf. Accessed 22 August 2016. Department for Business Innovation and Skills (2016b). Success as a Knowledge Economy: Teaching Excellence, Social Mobility and Student Choice. Available at: https://www.dropbox.com/home/research/Academic%20Literacy%20Article TEF?preview=bis-16-265-success-as-a-knowledge-economy+-+Jo+Johnson+Report+May+2016.pdf. Accessed 4 January 2017. Ellen Lavelle and Nancy Zuercher (2001). The Writing Approaches of University Students. Higher Education, 42:3, pp. 373-391. Hattie, J. and Timperley, H. (2007) The power of feedback Review of Educational Research, 77 (1) (2007), pp. 81112. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487 Higher Education and Research Bill (2016-2017). Available: http://services.parliament.uk/bills/2016-17/highereducationandresearch.html/. Accessed 5 January 2017. Reference Hubble, Sue, Foster, David and Bolton, Paul (2016) Higher Education and Research Bill, Research Briefing. Available: http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/CBP-7608. Accessed 5 January 2017. Liou, H. C. & Peng, Z. Y. (2009). Training effects on computer-mediated peer review. System, 37, pp. 514525. Lundstrom, K. & Baker, W. (2009). To give is better than to receive: the benefits of peer review to the reviewers own writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18, pp. 3043. Mann, J. (2016) 'Using Turnitin to Improve Academic Writing: An Action Research Inquiry' Research in Teacher Education, 6(2), pp. 16 - 22. Nattinger, J. and DeCarrico, S. (1992). Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching. (Oxford University Press). Paulus, T. M. (1999). The effect of peer and teacher feedback on student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8:3, pp. 265289. Sainte, D., Horton, D., Yool, A., and Elliott, A (2015). A progressive assessment strategy improves student learning and perceived course quality in undergraduate physiology. Advances in Physiology Education, 39:3, pp. 218 222. Scheeler, M. C., & Lee, D. L. (2002) Using technology to deliver immediate corrective feedback to preservice teachers. Journal of Behavioural Education, 11(4), pp. 231241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021158805714. Scheeler, M. C., Congdon, M., & Stansbery, S. (2010). Providing immediate feedback to co-teachers through bug-in-ear technology: An effective method for peer coaching in inclusion classrooms. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(1), pp. 8396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0888406409357013. Scheeler, M. C., McKinnon, K., & Stout, J. (2012). Effects of immediate feedback delivered via webcam and bug-in-ear technology on preservice teacher performance. Teacher Education and Special Education, 35(1), pp. 7790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0888406411401919. Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, M. K. (2004). Providing performance feedback to teachers: A review. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27(4), pp. 396407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088840640402700407. Schelfhout, W., Dochy, F., & Janssens, S. (2004). The use of self, peer, and teacher assessment as a feedback system in a learning environment aimed at fostering skills of cooperation in a entrepreneurial context. Assessment and Evaluatio in Higher Education, 29(2), pp. 177201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ Segers, M. S. R., Gijbels, D., & Thurlings, M. (2008). The relationship between students perceptions of portfolio assessment practice and their approaches to Learning. Educational Studies, 34(1), pp. 3544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03055690701785269. Shuell, T. (1986). Cognitive conceptions of learning. Review of Educational Research, 56(4), pp. 411436. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543056004411. Shute, V. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), pp. 153189. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654307313795. Skinner, B. F. (1968). The technology of teaching. Prentice-Hall, NJ: Englewoods-Cliffs. Storch, N. (2005). Collaborative writing: product, process, and students reflections. Journal of Second Language Writing, 14, 153173.

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