Verdana 30 pt - unipi.it

Verdana 30 pt - unipi.it

Corso di Laurea Magistrale in Ingegneria Chimica/ Ingegneria Energetica Formazione e Controllo di Inquinanti nella Combustione Impianti di trattamento effluenti Atmospheric emission control: Legislation Prof. L.Tognotti Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale Anno Accademico 2014-2015

Emissions Regulated pollutants: (CO2, SO2, CO, NOx, Particles, Non-Regulated pollutants: (Nano-particles, PAH, Benzene, VOC, etc.)

Chemical transformations Primary pollutants Secondary pollutants (Ozone, Particles, acid rain, etc.) Health Effects

Chronic Diseases (Asthma, allergies, cancer) Acute Diseases (Bronchial, cardiovascular diseases) 2 Air Pollutants

Most occur in gaseous form or as particulate matter Gaseous Pollutants = Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen fluoride Particulate Matter Pollutants = particles of organic, inorganic, or liquid substances Classified according to their origin Primary Pollutants = emitted directly into the air Secondary Pollutants = produced when primary

pollutants react with normal atmospheric compounds 3 Photochemical air pollution 4 Acid deposition

5 Air Pollutants The Primary Pollutants that account for nearly all air pollution problems are: Carbon monoxide = 58% Nitrogen Oxides = 15% Sulfur Oxides = 13% Volatile Organic Compounds = 11%

Particulates = 3% Every year about hundreds of million metric tons of these pollutants enter the atmosphere due to human activity; concentrated locally or regionally 6 Air Pollution 7

Air Quality Standards 8 NON criteria Pollutants 9 Urban Air Pollution

Urban areas = air pollution concentration sites Smog = visible air pollution Present in nearly all urban areas Extent depends on emission rates, topography, and weather conditions When rate of production exceeds rates of transportation and chemical transformation dangerous conditions can develop Meteorology Influence Restricted circulation in lower atmosphere due to formation of inversion layer may lead to pollution event

Atmospheric inversion occurs when warm air overlies cool air Topography Influence Topography surrounding the urban areas may create area specific atmosphere-surface interactions Combined with meteorological effects this can concentrate the air pollution above the city (i.e. LA, San Diego, Phoenix) 10 Air Quality Management: conceptual approach

Air quality: Emissions: Sampling/Analysis Continuous Emission Monitoring Industrial Industrial Source

Source Campaigns, Measuring stations Databases Atmosphere Atmosphere (short, (short,medium,long

medium,longrange) range) Receptors Receptors Permits LVs, IPPC: integrated Air Quality Standards

ELVs environmental licensing, BAT Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling 11 http://acm.eionet.europa.eu/ 12

13 EU legislation: Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) Industry emission IPPC> Industrial emissions Ambient air quality Frequent requirement for atmospheric dispersion modelling to ensure compliance with AQ standards of planned site Vehicle/fuel standards

National ceilings Cost effectiveness 14 European Legislation http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/index_en.htm Acidification 99/32/EC 01/80/EC (LCPs)

01/81/EC Two wheel veichles 97/24/EC Auto OIL 98/69/EC 98/70/EC 99/96/EC IPPC 96/61/EC

Incineration 00/76/EC VOC 99/13/EC Air Quality 96/62/EC Ambient Air Quality Assessment and Management 99/30/EC Air quality standard for PM10, SO2, NOx e lead 00/69/EC Air quality standard for CO and Benzene

02/03/EC Air quality standard for Ozone Ambient Air Quality I Daughter Directive Directive (1999/30/EC) Member States have two years to transpose the Directive and set up their monitoring strategies relating to limit values for NOx, SO2, Pb and PM10. Member States shall ensure that up-to-date information on

ambient concentrations of SO2, NOx, particulate matter and lead is routinely made available to the public. The met met met limit values for NOx for the protection of vegetation must be by 2001. The health limit values for SO2 and PM10 must be by 2005. The other health limit values for NO2 and Pb must be

by 2010. Member States will have to prepare attainment programmes showing how the limit values will be met on time for those areas where attainments by "business as usual" cannot be presumed. These programmes must be made directly available to the public, and must also be sent to the Commission. 16 Ambient Air Quality: II and III Daughter Directives

Directive (2000/69/EC) The directive establishes limit values for concentrations of benzene and carbon monoxide in ambient air, and requires to assess concentrations of those pollutants in ambient air on the basis of common methods and criteria, as well as to obtain adequate information on concentrations of benzene and carbon monoxide and ensure that it is made available to the public. Directive (2002/3/EC) The directive sets long-term objectives equivalent to the World Health Organisation's new guideline values and target values for ozone in

ambient air to be attained where possible by 2010. These targets follow Directive 2001/81/EC on national emission ceilings. Member States will have to prepare attainment programmes areas where attainments cannot be assumed without further These programmes must be made directly available to the public also be sent to the Commission. Annual reporting under the 2nd Directives must follow Commission Decision 2004/461/EC.

for those changes. and must Daughter 17 18 18

19 \ 20 Air Quality Management: conceptual approach Air quality:

Emissions: Sampling/Analysis Continuous Emission Monitoring Industrial Industrial Source Source Permits IPPC: integrated

environmental licensing, BAT Campaigns, Measuring stations Atmosphere Atmosphere (short,

(short,medium,long medium,longrange) range) ELVs Receptors Receptors LVs,

Air Quality Standards Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling 21 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/industry/stationary/index.htm 22

23 24 25 The Large Combustion Plant Directive (2001/80/EC) The LCP directive sets emission limit values from 2008 according to the fuel used for plants larger than 50 MWth The directive has 3 plant categories:

existing plants (licensed before 1st of July 1987) new plants (licensed after 1st of July 1987 but before 27 November 2002 (and operational before 27th November 2003)) new-new plants (licensed after 27th November 2003) Member countries may devise a national emission reduction plan (NERP) and set their own legislation or requirements as long as the plan ensures the same emissions total that applying the ELVs for individual plants would have done It seems to be a common opinion that the LCP directive will lead to the closure of many coal-fired and some older oil-fired power plants

26 Limit values for SO2: existing plants 27 v 29

30 v 31 32 33

34 35 http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ 36 Normativa Italiana su inquinamento atmosferico

37 NORME ABROGATE E SOSTITUITE TITOLO TITOLO III L. 615/1966; D.P.R. 203/88;

D.P.R. 1391/1970. D.M. 8/05/1989; D.P.C.M. 21/07/1989; D.M. III 12/07/1990; TITOLO D.P.R. 25/07/1991; D.P.C.M. 395/2001; D.M. 44/2004.

D.P.C.M. 8/03/2002. ESCLUSIONI Impianti di cui al Dlgs.133/2005 (incenerimento rifiuti); Impianti soggetti ad Autorizzazione Integrata Ambientale (IPPC); Nonch: Impianti di combustione (compresi i gruppi elettrogeni a cogenerazione), di potenza termica nominale < 1 MW, alimentati a biomasse, a gasolio (anche in emulsione), o a biodisel; Impianti alimentati ad olio combustibile di potenza termica nominale < 0,3 MW; Impianti alimentati alimentati a metano o GPL, di potenza termica nominale < 3 MW; Impianti ubicati allinterno di impianti di smaltimento rifiuti, alimentati da gas di discarica, gas residuati da processi di depurazione e biogas, di potenza termica fino a 3 MW, se lattivit di recupero soggetta a procedure semplificate e le stesse sono state espletate; ESCLUSIONI (2) Impianti alimentati a biogas di potenza inferiore o uguale a 3 MW; Gruppi elettrogeni di cogenerazione alimentati a metano o GPL, di potenza < 3 MW; Gruppi elettrogeni di cogenerazione alimentati a benzina di potenza < 1 MW; Impianti di combustione connessi ad attivit di stoccaggio di prodotti petroliferi funzionanti per meno di 220 ore annue, di potenza < 5 MW se a metano o GPL, e < 2,5 MW se a gasolio; Impianti di emergenza, sicurezza, laboratori di analisi e ricerca, impianti pilota per prove, ricerche, sperimentazione, individuazione di prototipi (tranne in caso di emissioni di sostanze cancerogene, tossiche o mutagene parte II, allegato I). ESCLUSIONI (3) Per gli impianti elencati, lA.C. pu prevedere lobbligo di

comunicare, in via preventiva, la data di messa in esercizio o di avvio dellattivit. Le norme di cui al titolo I non si applicano inoltre, agli impianti e alle attivit di cui allelenco della parte I dellallegato IV (impianti con emissioni scarsamente rilevanti); Per tali impianti e attivit lA.C. pu prevedere una comunicazione attestante il ricadere in tale elenco nonch, in via preventiva, contenente la data di messa in esercizio o inizio attivit;

QUESTIONI PRINCIPALI Autorizzazione a termine (15 anni); Obbligo di comunicazione in caso di modifica non sostanziale; Necessit di chiedere nuova autorizzazione per impianti gi autorizzati secondo apposito calendario stabilito dallA.C. ed entro i termini stabiliti dal decreto; Convogliamento emissioni diffuse; Camino unico. AUTORIZZAZIONE

Tutti gli impianti che generano emissioni, inclusi gli impianti termici non disciplinati dal Titolo II, devono essere autorizzati. STRUTTURA DELLA DOMANDA DI AUTORIZZAZIONE Domanda allA.C. accompagnata da:

Progetto dellimpianto; Tecniche adottate per limitare le emissioni in quantit e qualit; Modalit di esercizio; Tipo, quantit e caratteristiche dei combustibili utilizzati Relazione tecnica di descrizione del processo produttivo in cui si inserisce lattivit a cui limpianto destinato e indicante il periodo intercorrente tra messa in esercizio e messa a regime. ITER AUTORIZZATIVO

LA.C. procede: Convocazione entro 30 gg. dalla domanda di una C.d.S.; Pronuncia entro 120 gg. (150 in caso di integrazioni). In caso di mancata pronuncia il gestore pu, entro 60 gg., richiedere il pronunciamento del Ministro dellAmbiente che si esprime, di concerto con quello della salute e delle attivit produttive, sentito il Comune interessato, entro 90 gg. (150 per i casi di presentazione della nuova domanda per impianti anteriori al 1988 e 2006).

CONTENUTI DELLAUTORIZZAZIONE Lautorizzazione stabilisce: Modalit di captazione e convogliamento per le emissioni convogliabili; Valori limite di emissione, prescrizioni, metodi di campionamento e analisi, criteri per la valutazione della conformit dei valori misurati ai valori limite, periodicit dei controlli in capo al gestore; Prescrizioni per il contenimento delle emissioni diffuse; Periodo intercorrente tra messa in esercizio (da comunicarsi almeno

15 gg. prima) e messa a regime; La data per comunicare i dati relativi alle emissioni effettuate in un periodo continuativo non < 10 gg. dalla messa a regime e la durata di detto periodo; il numero di campionamenti. DLgs 152/06

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • CITY OF OROVILLE v. SUPERIOR COURT Is This

    CITY OF OROVILLE v. SUPERIOR COURT Is This

    Sheffet v County of Los Angeles (1970) 3 CA3d 720, 730. Compensable Damages. Examples Cont'd. Land regulation enacted in bad faith, e.g., to depress the value of property for subsequent acquisition by the public agency. Peacock v County of Sacramento...
  • API Subcommittee 13 on Drilling, Completion and Fracturing

    API Subcommittee 13 on Drilling, Completion and Fracturing

    Hibernation 3. PSD Test Method For OBMs/SBMs ... Brent Estes. 4. WBM Procedures. RP 13B-1RP 13I. 1. Simulated Drill Solids for Fluid Testing. Active. Greg Perez. 2. PPT Procedure Revision.
  • La Gestión Del Arbolado Alcalá De Henares

    La Gestión Del Arbolado Alcalá De Henares

    Importancia de los árboles en Alcalá. En cuanto a la . gestión. del arbolado debe ser: - Coordinada y . basada en criterios técnicos, y de eficiencia y sostenibilidad
  • 2012 Nec Grade 7 Parent Information Night!

    2012 Nec Grade 7 Parent Information Night!

    High School Is the time of your life because… " High school has been a tremendous experience mainly because of the variety of classes and great teachers I was exposed to.I was able to go on some great field trips,...
  • Ogle County Educational Cooperative (OCEC) and Florissa Pediatric

    Ogle County Educational Cooperative (OCEC) and Florissa Pediatric

    Opportunity to assist with crisis counseling/threat assessment services for member districts as needed. Opportunity to consult with multi-disciplinary based teams in relation to problem solving, behavior management, Autism, medical and mental health. Opportunity to review and, or access specialized student...
  • PowerPoint - Culinary Kitchen Math Calculations

    PowerPoint - Culinary Kitchen Math Calculations

    Bakers, chefs and cooks use math skills to adjust recipe yields, weigh ingredients and adjust cooking times and temperatures for different foods. Managers use math skills to take care of the business side of the food service industry such as...
  • Maryland state business management and finance capstone ...

    Maryland state business management and finance capstone ...

    CLEP TRAINING RESOURCES. New-Mary Metzler and Sean Griffin from Howard County advocate using Cornell Notes as a an effective method for helping prepare students for the CLEP exam and have shared with us the resources they have gathered.
  • Welcome to Room 332! (Mr. Robinson) BLUE schedule on your ...

    Welcome to Room 332! (Mr. Robinson) BLUE schedule on your ...

    The old man turned off the radioSaid, "Where did all of the old songs goKids sure play funny music these daysThey play it in the strangest ways"Said, "it looks to me like they've all gone wildIt was peaceful back when...