Voting System Technologies

Voting System Technologies

High Impact Research: Blending Science, Engineering & Design Ben Shneiderman [email protected] @benbendc Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Lab Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Interdisciplinary research community

- Computer Science & Info Studies - Psych, Socio, Educ, Jour & MITH www.cs.umd.edu/hcil vimeo.com/72440805 Design Issues Input devices & strategies Keyboards, pointing devices, voice

Direct manipulation Menus, forms, commands Output devices & formats Screens, windows, color, sound Text, tables, graphics Instructions, messages, help Collaboration & Social Media Help, tutorials, training Search www.awl.com/DTUI Fifth Edition: 2010 Visualization

Spotfire: Retinols role in embryos & vision Spotfire: DC natality data Spotfire Treemap: Bond Portfolio Analysis www.spotfire.com Spotfire Networks: Supply Chain Analysis www.spotfire.com 10M - 100M pixels: Large displays 16M pixels: My New Workstation

100M-pixels & more 1M-pixels & less Small mobile devices Information Visualization: Mantra

Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand (The Eyes Have It, IEEE VL, 1996)

SciViz . 1-D Linear 2-D Map 3-D World Document Lens, SeeSoft, Info Mural

Multi-Var Temporal Tree Network Text Spotfire, Tableau, Qliktech, DataWatch InfoViz Information Visualization: Data Types infosthetics.com flowingdata.com

visual.ly GIS, ArcView, PageMaker, Medical imagery CAD, Medical, Molecules, Architecture EventFlow, TimeSearcher, Palantir, DataMontage Cone/Cam/Hyperbolic, SpaceTree, Treemap Pajek, UCINet, NodeXL, Gephi, Tom Sawyer TagClouds, Wordle, ManyEyes, Ngram Viewer visualcomplexity.com perceptualedge.com Visualizing.org eagereyes.org datakind.org infovis.org

High Impact Research: Blending Science, Engineering & Design Ben Shneiderman [email protected] @benbendc Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Lab Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742

p a et M r o h High Impact Research: A Vision for UMIACS Ben Shneiderman Marshini Chetty Mihai Pop Rance Cleaveland Tudor Dumitras

(Chair, CS/HCI), (iSchool/HCI), (CS/Computational Biology), (CS/Software Engineering), (ECE/Cybersecurity) p a et M r o h

p a et M r o h High Impact Research: A Vision for UMIACS Ben Shneiderman Marshini Chetty Mihai Pop Rance Cleaveland Tudor Dumitras

(Chair, CS/HCI), (iSchool/HCI), (CS/Computational Biology), (CS/Software Engineering), (ECE/Cybersecurity) p a et M r o h

High Impact Research: A Vision for UMIACS Ben Shneiderman Marshini Chetty Mihai Pop Rance Cleaveland Tudor Dumitras (Chair, CS/HCI), (iSchool/HCI), (CS/Computational Biology), (CS/Software Engineering), (ECE/Cybersecurity) In

n o i t a r i Jeffersons p s Mission Statement (1804) object of your mission is to explorethe most direct & practicable water communication across the continent, for the purpose of

commerce. + geography, geology, astronomy, biology, meteorology In n o i t a r i Kennedy p s

Moon Shot Speech (1961) The growth of our science & education will be enriched by new knowledge of our universe & environment, by new techniques of learning & mapping, by new tools & computers for industry, medicine, home & school. In n o i t a UN r

i sp Millennium Development Goals To be achieved by 2015 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development In n o i t a r

Grand i p s

Challenges: NAE (2008) Make solar energy economical Provide energy from fusion Develop carbon sequestration methods Manage the nitrogen cycle Provide access to clean water Restore and improve urban infrastructure Advance health informatics Engineer better medicines Reverse-engineer the brain Prevent nuclear terror

Secure cyberspace Enhance virtual reality Advance personalized learning Engineer the tools of scientific discovery www.engineeringchallenges.org/ In n o i t a r i

Longitude p s Prize 2014: Crowdsourced Ensure everyone can have access to safe & clean water? Restore movement to those with paralysis? Fly without damaging the environment? Help people with dementia live independently for longer Prevent the rise of resistance to antibiotics? Ensure everyone has nutritious, sustainable food? In

n o i t a r i Longitude p s Prize 2014: Crowdsourced Ensure everyone can have access to safe & clean water?

Restore movement to those with paralysis? Fly without damaging the environment? Help people with dementia live independently for longer Prevent the rise of resistance to antibiotics? Ensure everyone has nutritious, sustainable food? Vannevar Bush: FDRs Science Advisor Science: The Endless Frontier (1945) -Separates basic (or pure) from applied research -Urges strong govt support for academic basic research: statistically it is certain that important and highly useful discoveries will result from some fraction of the work undertaken; but the results of any one particular investigation cannot be predicted with accuracy.

Th - Warns: applied research invariably drives out e Pr pure ob lem Vannevar Bush: FDRs Science Advisor Science: The Endless Frontier (1945) -Separates basic (or pure) from applied research -Urges strong govt support for academic basic research: statistically it is certain that important and highly useful discoveries will result from some fraction of the work undertaken; but the results of any one particular investigation cannot be predicted with

accuracy. Th - Warns: applied research invariably drives out e Pr pure ob lem Th e Linear Model Basic Research

Pr ob lem Applied Research Development Production & operations Linear Model

Basic Research Applied Research Development Production & operations Rarely works: Basic Researchers choose wrong Th e Pr problems

ob lemTechnology Transfer is a struggle Reverse Linear Model Basic Research Applied Research Development Production & operations

Successful pattern: Listen to industry problems & solve them Technology Transfer is easier High Impact Model: Raised Expectations Basic Research Applied Research Development Production & operations

http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/04/toward-anecological-model-of-research-and-development/275187/ High Impact Model: Raised Expectations Basic Research Applied Research Development Production & operations use-inspired basic research theory-inspired applied research

High Impact Model: Raised Expectations Basic Research Applied Research Development Production & operations Theory without practice cannot survive and dies as quickly as t lives. He who loves practice without theory is like the sailor who boards ship without a rudder and compass and never knows where he

Research Project: 2 parents, 3 children Basic Theory Applied Problem Research Project Refine Theory Solve Problem

Provide Guidance to Future Researchers High Impact Research Strategies Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities High Impact Research Strategies Blend science, engineering & design research methods Choose actionable problems:

civic, business & global priorities Science, Engineering, Design High Impact Research Strategies Blend science, Form teams engineering & design with diverse individuals research methods & organizations Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities Teams: Winning Strategy

Magic of Two (End of the Lone Genius) Teams: hugely effective, but difficult to run May take practice to gain skills Clear goals, clear roles Trust, communication, recognition Large teams need administrative support scienceofteamscience.org High Impact Research Strategies Blend science, Form teams engineering & design with diverse individuals research methods

& organizations Strive for universal theories, principles & guidelines Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities What kinds of theories are there? Descriptive Explanatory Predictive Prescriptive Generative

What kinds of theories are there? Descriptive Explanatory Predictive Prescriptive Generative Cognitive Perceptual Motor skills Small Group Teamwork Organizational/Leadership Social/Cultural

High Impact Research Strategies Test prototypes with realistic interventions Use big data & case study methods Blend science, Form teams engineering & design with diverse individuals research methods & organizations Strive for universal theories, principles

& guidelines Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities Prototype & test Something Small Soon Be agile, Gather data, Fail sooner Scale-up, scale-out Find partners with living laboratories Repeated case studies support theories Writing clarifies thinking Publishing gains feedback High Impact Research Strategies

Promote adoption & assess impact Test prototypes with realistic interventions Use big data & case study methods Blend science, Form teams engineering & design with diverse individuals research methods & organizations Strive for universal theories, principles

& guidelines Choose actionable problems: civic, business & global priorities How to Promote Adoption Ideas travel through networks and relationships

Cultivate champions. Present, Present, Present! Become a trustworthy source in your field Address areas of policy interest Join relevant committees & insert your findings into decision making Consider Action Research designs Dont wait for publication. Disseminate early https://becker.wustl.edu/impact-assessment/strategies Promote Adoption & Assess Impact Promote Adoption Send Five & Thrive Distribute copies of papers, create websites, make videos

Travel to speak at conferences & to colleagues Write follow up papers, seek citations Assess Impact Measure downloads, tweets, blogposts, media mentions Win Best Paper Awards, collect testimonials Count citations Repeat for Research, Researchers & Organizations Research on Science & Technology 1975: Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) 1993: Intl Society for Scientometrics & Informetrics 2007: Intl Society for the Psychology of Science & Technology 2008: NSF Science of Science & Innovation Policy (SciSIP) 2010: Science of Team Science Conference (SciTS) (www.scienceofteamscience.org)

Research on Science & Technology 1975: Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) 1993: Intl Society for Scientometrics & Informetrics 2007: Intl Society for the Psychology of Science & Technology 2008: NSF Science of Science & Innovation Policy (SciSIP) 2010: Science of Team Science Conference (SciTS) (www.scienceofteamscience.org) 2011: Altmetrics Conference (www.altmetrics.org) 2011: Beyond Impact Workshop (www.beyond-impact.org) 2011: Becker Assessment Model (becker.wustl.edu/impact-assessment/) 2012: SF-Declaration on Research Assessment (am.ascb.org/dora/) www.cs.umd.edu/hcil

@benbendc Quadrant Model of Research Considerations of use? No Yes Quest for fundamental understanding? Basic Research Yes (Bohr)

No Use-inspired Basic Research (Pasteur) Applied Research (Edison) Stokes, Pasteurs Quadrant, 1997 In n

o i t a Potential r i sp

High-Impact Research Topics Desktop/Laptop software World Wide Web & services Mobile devices & services Human-Computer Interaction Information Visualization & Big Data Creativity Support Tools Technology-Mediated Social Participation Medical informatics: Learning Health System

Environmental Protection Energy Sustainability Community Safety Education

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