W5 of Computer Engineering (Why, What, When, Where, How)

W5 of Computer Engineering (Why, What, When, Where, How)

American roads are good not because America is rich, but America is rich because American roads are good John F. Kennedy Highway Engineering-(2150601) Civil Engineering- Semester V Chapter-3 Highway Material - BITUMEN Chapter 3 Civil Engg. Deptt, Lecture 1 Highway Material Testing and Bituminous Mix [email protected] Highway Engineeing Highway Engineeing (2150601) (2150601) Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Technology Technology GTU Syllabus Ch. Contents No. of Lect. % Mark s 03 Highway materials: subgrade soil, aggregates, binder

materials, bituminous materials, bituminous paving mixes, cement and cement concrete their engineering and physical properties, basic tests. 7 16 12 04 Pavement design factors, Design of flexible (GI and CBR method) and rigid pavements (fatigue concept), Construction of earthen, Gravel, WBM, Bituminous, Cement concrete, RCC and Pre-stressed concrete roads, Soil stabilized roads 7 16 12 05 Pavement failures, Maintenance, Surface and subsurface drainage, Hill roads alignment, construction, drainage and maintenance. Road side development arboriculture, street lighting. Highway administration, economics and finance, road safety audit 6 16 12 Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 22 Faculty

UJS UJS UJS Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Points to be discussed in Chapter 1 1. Highway materials A. Subgrade soil B. Aggregates/Metal/Black trap metal (BT-Metal) (Kapchi) C. Binder/ Bitumen/Asphalt 2. Bituminous Paving mixes ( Bituminous mix) 3. Cement and Cement concrete their engineering and physical properties, basic tests.learnt in semester 4.. Will not discuss Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 33 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Cross section of Flexible pavement Carriage way Non-bituminous layer Bituminous Layer Shoulder- Provide support

Provide Wearing surface Binder course load transfer Upper Granular sub base- Open graded Grading I and II Lower Granular sub base- Close graded Grading III and IV Base-Load transfer Upper subbaseDrainage layer Lower subbase- separation layer Existing soil OR Ground Known as Subgrade Surface/Wearing course -Name BC-Bituminous Concrete SDBC-Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete OGPC- Open graded pre-mix carpet PC-Premix carpet Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- Binder course-Name Base course WBM-Water bound DBM-Dense Bituminous Macadam Macadam WMM-Wet BUSG- Built Up Spray Grout Mix PC-Premix carpet Macadam Darshan Institute of Engineering & 44 Darshan Institute of Engineering & BM-Bituminous macadam Cross section of flexible pavement Slope known as camber

Tack coat Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 55 Prime coat Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Materials required for pavement construction Classified materials Soil Aggregate BinderBITUMEN BinderCEMENT Used as subgrade Subgrade may be borrowed ( compacte d) Used in granular sub base Used in granular base course Used in bituminous

layer Used in binder course Used in wearing course EMULSION Used for prime coat and tack coat Used in Dry lean concrete (DLC) Used in Pavement Quality Concrete (PQC) Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 66 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Bitumen Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 77

Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Discussion on The main objective of this lesson is to make the student 1. Learn about different types of binders used in pavement construction 2. learn how paving grade bitumens are produced 3. Learn about the requirements of a good paving binder 4. Learn about some tests conducted on bitumen Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 88 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Bitumen Bitumen is petroleum product, obtained by the distillation of petroleum crude oil Bitumen is hydrocarbon material of either natural or pyrogenous origin found in gaseous, liquid, semisolid or solid form and is completely soluble in carbon disulphide and in carbon tetra chloride Bituminous materials are commonly used in highway construction ( Binder and surface/wearing course) because of their binding and water proofing properties Term bitumen is originated from the word Jatu krit ( Sanskrit word) Contains are 82-88% Carbon 8-11% hydrogen 0-6% Sulpher

Key constituents of bitumen are Asphaltants 8-16% Resins -20-30% Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 99 0-1.5% oxygen Aromatics -40-60% 0-1% Nitrogen Saturates -2-10% Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Manufacturing company in Gujarat Shell Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 10 10 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & &

Schematic Flow-Chart for petroleum refining Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 11 11 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Types of Bituminous binder Types of Bituminous binders used in Flexible pavement construction 1. Paving grade bitumen a) Viscosity grade bitumen- VG 10, VG 20, VG 30, VG 40 2. Modified bituminous binder a) Polymer modified bitumen -PMB b) Crumb rubber modified bitumen - CRMB 3. Cutback bitumen a) Rapid curing cutback (RC) b) Medium Curing cutback (MC) c) Slow curing cutback ( SC)

4. Bitumen Emulsion a) Rapid Setting emulsion (RS) b) Medium Setting emulsion (MS) c) Slow Setting emulsion ( SS) Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 12 12 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Difference between Bitumen and Tar ..GTU Sr. No 01 BITUMEN TAR Produced from fractional Produced from coal by destructive distillation of petroleum crude distillation 02 03 04 05 06

Less temperature susceptible* Used in road construction Sp. Gravity range 0.97 to 1.02 More resistance to water Soluble in Carbon disulphide CS2 and carbon tetra chloride CCl4 High temperature susceptible* Not used in road construction Sp. Gravity range 1.10 to 1.25 Less resistance to water Soluble in Toluene- C7H8 07 Free carbon content is less More Free carbon content *Temperature susceptible means effect of variation in temperature Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 13 13 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & ADVANTAGE OF MODIFIED BINDER 1. Lower susceptibility to temperature variation 2. Higher resistance to deformation at high pavement temperature 3. Delay of cracking and reflective cracking 4. Better age resistance properties 5. Better adhesion between aggregates and binder 6. Higher fatigue life of mixes 7. Overall improved performance Highway

Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 14 14 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Difference between Bitumen-Tar-Emulsion-Cutback Sr. Bitumen No Tar Emulsion Cutback 01 Produced from fractional distillation of petroleum crude Produced from coal by destructive distillation Prepared by dispersing bitumen in the form of fine globules suspended in WATER with the help of suitable EMULSIFIER Prepared by diluting a paving grade

bitumen with volatile solvent such as KEROSENE 02 Less temperature susceptible High Used for Prime coat and Currently not used in temperature Tack coat and other cold road construction susceptible mix activity 03 Used in road Not used in construction road construction 04 Sp. Gravity Sp. Gravity range 0.97 to range 1.10 to 1.02 1.25 Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 15 15 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & BITUMEN Cutback The viscosity of bitumen reduced by volatile diluents( diesel, kerosene are added) slow, medium, rapid curing. Currently cutback is not used in road construction activity

Emulsion: Bitumen is suspended in finely divided condition in an aqueous medium and stabilized with an emulsifier : slow, medium, rapid setting. Currently it is in practice in the field Used in prime coat and tack coat and other cold mix application Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 16 16 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & CODAL GUIDELINES FOR BITUMEN Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 17 17 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Desirable Properties of Bitumen..GTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

It should be FLUID ENOUGH at the time of mixing to coat the aggregate evenly by a thin film. It should have LOW TEMPERATURE SUSCEPTIBILITY It should show UNIFORM VISCOSITY characteristics Bitumen should have GOOD AMOUNT OF VOLATILES in it The bitumen should be DUCTILE AND NOT BRITTLE The bitumen should be CAPABLE OF BEING HEATED to the temperature at which it can be easily mixed WITHOUT ANY FIRE HAZARDS The bitumen should have GOOD AFFINITY TO THE AGGREGATE and should not be stripped off in the continued presence off water Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 18 18 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & TESTING OF BITUMEN REQUIRED TESTING TO CHECK ITS SUITABILITY (As per Measure IS/ASTM/IRC) Hardness or softness 1 Penetration test 2 Ductility test Adhesiveness Viscosity Test

Fluidity 3 4 Softening point test 5 Specific Gravity test 6 Flash and Fire Point test 7 Loss on heating test 8 Solubility test Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- Temperature susceptibility Quality Hazardous temperature Amount of volatiles Purity/ Quality 19 19 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & 1.

Penetration test(old grading system)..GTU It MEASURES the HARDNESS OR SOFTNESS of bitumen by measuring the depth in tenths of a millimeter ( 1/10 mm) to which a standard loaded needle will penetrate vertically in 5 seconds. The penetrometer consists of a needle assembly with a total weight of 100g. and time of application of load being 5 seconds The test should be conducted at a specified temperature of 25C. A grade of 60/70 bitumen means the penetration value is in the range 60 to 70 at standard test conditions. In hot climates, a lower penetration grade is preferred. VG 10 VG 20 VG 30 VG 40 Penetration at 25C, Highway Engineering Bitumen80 60 Highway Engineering 100 g, 5 s, 0.1 mm, Min Bitumen- 45 Darshan 35 IS 1203 Institute of Darshan

Institute of Engineering Engineering & & 20 20 2. Ductility Test..GTU Bitumen should be sufficiently ductile and capable of being stretched without breaking Ductility is measured as the distance in cm to which standard briquette of size 10 * 10 mm can be stretched before the thread breaks at a standard temperature of 27 C and the rate of elongation is 50 mm/ minute Ductility is a measure of adhesiveness and elasticity of bitumen Minimum ductility value as per IS 73: 2013 is 40 cm on residue from rolling thin film oven -RTFOT for VG 30 grade of bitumen VG 10 Ductility at 25C, cm, Min. on Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumenresidue from TFOT VG 20

VG 30 VG 40 IS & Darshan Institute of Engineering Darshan Institute of Engineering & 75 50 40 25 21 21 1208 3. Viscosity Test(New Grading system-VG) Viscosity is defined as inverse of fluidity. It is also defined as the shear stress applied to a sample of bitumen in Pascal divided by the shear rate per second Viscosity denotes the fluid property of bituminous material and it is a measure of resistance to flow. At the application temperature, this characteristic greatly influences the strength of resulting paving mixes. Low or high viscosity during compaction or mixing has been observed to result in lower stability values. At high viscosity, it resist the compactive effort and thereby resulting mix is heterogeneous, hence low stability values. And at low viscosity instead of providing a uniform film over aggregates, it will lubricate the aggregate particles. The basic unit of viscosity is the Pascal seconds (Pa s). The absolute or dynamic viscosity of bitumen measured in poise , 1Pa s = 10 p (Poise). Kinematic viscosity measured in Centi stoke ( cSt) Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 22 22

Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Viscosity Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity of a Newtonian Liquid It is an internal friction such that, if a tangential force of one dyne (0.00001 N) acting on planes of unit area separated by unit distance of the liquid produces unit tangential velocity, the cgs unit of the viscosity for the liquid is 1 Poise . Kinematic Viscosity of a Newtonian Liquid- It may be defined as the quotient of the absolute or dynamic viscosity divided by the density of the liquid under test; both at the same temperature. The cgs unit of kinematic viscosity is the stoke which has the dimensions square centimeter per second. For petroleum products the kinematic viscosity is generally expressed in centistokes (cSt) which is 1/100th of a stoke. VG 10 VG 20 VG 30 VG 40 Absolute viscosity at 60C, Poises 8001200 16002400 24003600 32004800 Kinematic viscosity at 135C, cSt, Minimum 250 300 350

400 Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 23 23 IS 1206 (Part-2) IS 1206 (Part-3) Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & 3. Viscosity Test(New Grading system-VG) Orifice type viscometer - Viscosity by Orifice type viscometer Saybolt Furol Orifice type viscometers are used to indirectly find the viscosity of liquid binders like cutbacks and emulsions. The viscosity expressed in seconds is the time taken by the 50 ml bitumen material to pass through the orifice of a cup, under standard test conditions and specified temperature. Viscosity of a cutback or emulsion can be measured with either 4.0 mm orifice at 25o C or 10 mm orifice at 25o C or 40o C Highway

Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 24 24 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & 3. Viscosity Test(New Grading system-VG) Viscosity by Canonmanings viscometer Viscosity measurement Apparatus VISCOSITY BATH GLASS TUBE BOOKFIELD VISCOMETER Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 25 25 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Absolute viscosity test on VG Grade bitumen Vaccum-300 mm/Hg Absolute Viscosity- Glass tube viscometer Absolute Viscosity : It is carried out at 60 C. Bitumen is filled up to filling line Tube is kept in viscosity oil bath, heated up to

135C, ..cool up to 60 C Vacuum is applied at 60 C @ 300 mm/Hg, Time in second is noted to cross the bitumen mark F to G and G to H Viscosity Poises = Kt K= Calibration factor, in poise per second; and t = flow time, in seconds. Always report the test temperature and vacuum with the viscosity test results. For example, viscosity at 6OC, 30 cm Hg Vacuum in poises, 1Pa s = 10 p (Poise). Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 26 26 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Kinematic viscosity test on VG Grade bitumen Kinematic Viscosity- Glass tube viscometer Kinematic Viscosity : It is carried out at 135 C Bitumen is filled up to filling line Tube is kept in viscosity oil bath, heated up to 135C, kept up 30 min Time in second is noted to cross the bitumen mark E to F Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- Kinematic viscosity cSt =Ct C = calibration constant of the viscometer in centistokes per second, and t = efflux time in seconds Report always the test temperature along with the results as follows : Kinematic viscosity at 60 in cSt

27 27 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & 4. SOFTENING POINT TEST Softening point denotes the temperature at which the bitumen attains a particular degree of softening under the specifications of test. The test is conducted by using Ring and Ball apparatus. A brass ring containing test sample of bitumen is suspended in liquid like water or glycerin at a given temperature. A steel ball is placed upon the bitumen sample and the liquid medium is heated at a rate of 5C per minute. Temperature is noted when the softened bitumen touches the metal plate which is at a specified distance below. Generally, higher softening point indicates lower temperature susceptibility and is preferred in hot climates. VG-10 Highway BitumenHighway Engineering BitumenSofteningEngineering point (R&B), C, Min

40 28 28 VG-20 VG-30 VG-40 Darshan Institute & Darshan Institute of Engineering Engineering & 45 47 of 50 IS 1205 5. Specific gravity test The density of bitumen is greatly influenced by its chemical composition. The specific gravity of bitumen is defined as the ratio of mass of given volume of bitumen of known content to the mass of equal volume of water at 27C. The specific gravity can be measured using either pycnometer / density bottle / preparing a cube specimen of bitumen in semi solid or solid state. The specific gravity of bitumen varies from 0.97 to 1.02. = Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen-

29 29 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Close cup 6. Flash and Fire Point test At high temperatures depending upon the grades of bitumen materials leave out volatiles and these volatiles catch fire causing a flash. This condition is very hazardous and therefore it is essential to qualify this temperature for each bitumen grade. Open cup BIS defined the flash point as the lowest temperature at which the vapour of bitumen momentarily catches fire in the form of flash under specified test conditions. The fire point is defined as the lowest temperature under specified test conditions at which the bituminous material gets ignited and burns. Pensky martens closed cup apparatus or open cup used for testing. Temperature is noted, Flash point 220C Min Highway

Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 2/8/20 30 30 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & 7. Loss on heating IS:1212-1978 When bitumen is heated, it loses the volatiles and get hardened. To study the effect of heating, an accelerated heating procedure is adopted About 50 g of sample is heated to a temperature 163C for 5 hours in a special oven After the heating period, the sample is cooled and weighed again and the loss in weight is expressed as % by weight of original sample Bitumen used in pavement mixes should not indicate more than 1 % loss in weight Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 31 31 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & 8. Solubility Test IS:1212-1978 Pure bitumen is completely soluble in solvents like carbon disulphide

and carbon tetrachloride Hence any impurity in bitumen in the form of inert minerals, carbon, salts etc. could be quantitively analyzed by dissolving the samples of bitumen in any of the two solvents A Sample of about 2.0 g of bitumen dissolved in about 100 ml of solvent The solution is filtered and the insoluble material retained is washed; the insoluble material is expressed as a % by weight of original sample The insoluble material should be preferably less than 1.0% The minimum proportion of bitumen soluble in carbon disulphide is specified as 99% Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 32 32 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Paving Grades Sr. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Characteristics Penetration at 25C, 100 g, 5 s, 0.1 mm, Min Absolute viscosity at 60C, Poises Kinematic viscosity at 135C, cSt, Min Flash point (Cleveland open cup), C, Min

Solubility in trichloroethylene, percent, Min Softening point (R&B), C, Min Tests on residue from rolling /thin film oven test: a) Viscosity ratio at 60C, Max b) Engineering Ductility at 25C, cm, Min Highway BitumenHighway Engineering Bitumen- VG 30 VG 40 Method of Test, Ref to VG 10 VG 20 80 60 45 35 IS 1203 8001200 16002400 24003600 32004800

250 300 350 400 220 220 220 220 IS 1206 (Part-2) IS 1206 (Part-3) IS 1448 [P : 69] 99.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 IS 1216 40 45 47 50 IS 1205 4.0

4.0 4.0 4.0 IS 1206 (Part 2) 75Darshan 50 Institute 40 of 25 IS 1208 & Darshan Institute of Engineering Engineering & 33 33 Paving Grades Sr. no. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Characteristics VG 10 VG 20 80 60 45

35 IS 1203 8001200 16002400 24003600 32004800 250 300 350 400 220 220 220 220 IS 1206 (Part-2) IS 1206 (Part-3) IS 1448 [P : 69] 99.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 IS 1216

40 45 47 50 IS 1205 a) Viscosity ratio at 60C, Max 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 IS 1206 (Part 2) b) Ductility at 25C, cm, Min 75 50 40 25 IS 1208 Penetration at 25C, 100 g, 5 s, 0.1 mm, Min Absolute viscosity at 60C, Poises Kinematic viscosity at 135C, cSt, Min Flash point (Cleveland open cup), C, Min Solubility in trichloroethylene, %, Min

vi) Softening point (R&B), C, Min vii) Tests on residue from rolling /thin film oven test: Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 34 34 VG 30 VG 40 Method of Test, Ref to Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & 6. TEST - TEST PROPERTY AND TEST. TEMP. Sr. No Test Name Property tested 01 Penetration test Hardness or Softness 25C

02 Ductility test Adhesive property/ Affinity 27C 03 Viscosity test Fluidity 04 Softening test Temperature susceptibility 05 Specific gravity Quality 06 Flash and fire point Hazardous temperature 07 Loss on heating Amount of volatiles 163C 08 Solubility test Detect contamination in asphalt cement

27C 35 Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- Test Temperature 135 C-Kinematic 60C-Absolute Need to be measure 27C Need to be measure 2/8/20 35 35 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Selection criteria for VG paving Bitumen based on climatic conditions 36 Lowest Daily Sr. Mean Air < 250C 20 to 300C > 300C No Temperature (0C) 1. More than 100C VG-10 VG-20 VG-30

2. 100C or lower VG-10 VG-20 Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- VG-10 2/8/20 36 36 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Temperature for Construction Operations 37 Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 2/8/20 37 37 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & &

Suitability of Penetration grade with viscosity grade 38 VG-10 Absolute viscosity at 60 C, poise C, poise ( min.) 800 VG-20 1600 300 60/70 10 to 55 VG-30 2400 350 50/70 0 to 40 VG-40 3600 400 40/60 -10 to 30 Viscosity Grade

Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- Kinematic Penetration Atmospheric Grade Temp (oC) viscosity at 135 C, poise C, cSt (min) 80/100 15 to 55 250 2/8/20 38 38 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & & Requirement of Paving grade Bitumen (IS:73) 39 Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 2/8/20 39 39 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & &

41 Highway Highway Engineering Engineering BitumenBitumen- 2/8/20 41 41 Darshan Darshan Institute Institute of of Engineering Engineering & &

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