War Comes to SC - Mr. Hill's Journey Through South Carolina ...
War Comes to SC What factors led to South Carolina hosting more battles in the Revolutionary War, than any other colony? Bloodshed in South Carolina In the summer of 1775, South Carolinas leaders signed Treaty of Ninety Six with Loyalists in the backcountry. Both sides agreed to neutrality.
Neutrality ended in November, when fighting broke out between Patriots and Loyalists in the backcountry. It was the first blood of the American Revolution to be spilled in South Carolina. The Council of Safety sent 2,500 men to capture Loyalists. Loyalists didnt resist again until Britain could help. Victory at Sullivans Island
The first battle with the British in South Carolina was on Sullivans Island, near Charles Towns harbor, on June 28, 1776 This was a major victory for the Patriots. o Britain lost more than 200 men. Patriots loss fewer than 40. o Palmetto logs helped protect the colonists from Britains cannon fire. Victory at
Sullivans Island To remember the victory, the Patriots added a palmetto tree to their blue flag, creating todays state flag. Civil War in the South Carolina
Conflict between the lowcountry and the back country leads to a South Carolina civil war. Britain wanted to ally with South Carolinas Loyalists. Britain took control of Charles Town in 1780 o Almost 5,000 Continental soldiers became prisoners of war. o Patriot supplies and escape routes were blocked.
British Brutality Rallies Patriots Bufords Massacre, also called Tarletons quarter, along with looting, and other British acts were so vicious, the Patriots were motivated to fight back. Many Loyalists joined the Patriot cause because of Britains brutality. British behavior led many South Carolinians to engage in partisan warfare. Patriots took another major defeat at the Battle
of Camden. Partisan Leaders Thomas Sumter: the Fighting Gamecock. Harassed the British, disrupted supply lines & organized the backcountry. Encouraged the Americans & frustrated the British. Andrew Pickens: the Wizard Owl. Used guerrilla warfare & disrupted
supply lines & communication. Francis Marion: the Swamp Fox. Attacked British forces and disappeared into the swamp. William Harden: employed guerilla warfare. Battle of Camden Patriots took another major defeat at the Battle of Camden in 1780.
The defeat signified that almost all of South Carolina was under the control of the British. South Carolina Patriots were unprepared at Camden and fled when British forces appeared. As a result, the command of General Horatio Gates was transferred to Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene. Greene realized that the Continental regulars could learn a lot from Partisan soldiers.
The Battle of Camden The Tide Turns Beginning in 1781, the Patriots began to have more victories, partly due to partisan warfare. The civil war between Patriots and Loyalists continued in the upcountry. Patriots won major battles at Kings Mountain and Cowpens
Key Conflicts in South Carolina Sullivans Island (June 1776) Fort Moultrie was constructed of Palmetto logs. Sgt. William Jasper saved the fallen flag. Charles Town (Charleston) was captured, leaders held hostage, and the loss of a port city to the Patriots was devastating. The Southern Campaign (178081) The British knew Loyalist support in the South was strong. They thought if they invaded South Carolina and
Georgia, they could win the war. Key Conflicts in South Carolina Battle of Camden (Aug. 1780) Patriots led by Horatio Gates marched in the summer heat with little food. They ate green corn & became sick. Battle of Kings Mountain (Oct. 1780) Patriots ambushed Fergusons Loyalists. Ferguson & many men killed. Recalling Tarletons Quarter, Patriots ignored pleas for surrender from Loyalists.
Battle of Cowpens (Jan. 1781) Americans pretend to retreat. Cornwallis & Tarleton lost men & supplies, causing them to leave SC & NC. The turning point of the war in the South. The Turning Tide of WarBattle of Cowpens The Final Days Battle of Eutaw Springs (September 1781)
o Last major battle of the Revolution in South Carolina o British victory, though both sides took a hard hit o Some of the battlefield is presently under Lake Marion. Within a month, the British army surrendered at Yorktown. Victory at Yorktown
The British surrendered in August 1781 at the Battle of Yorktown. But the revolution didnt end in South Carolina until 1782.
Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the war The United States was officially its own nation.
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