Water and Minerals: The Ocean Within - Napa Valley College

Water and Minerals: The Ocean Within - Napa Valley College

Water and Minerals: The Ocean Within BIOL 103, Chapter 10-2 Todays Topic Trace Minerals: Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Iodine, Copper, Manganese, Fluoride, Chromium, Molybdenum Other Trace Minerals and Ultratrace minerals Trace Minerals

Cofactors for _____________ Components of _________________ Participate in many chemical reaction Essential for: ______________________ Immune System Iron Functions: 1. ______________ transport (as part of hemoglobin and myoglobin)

Hemoglobin: carries oxygen in __________________ Myoglobin: moves oxygen into ______________________ 2. Cofactor for enzymes Participates in reactions involving energy production, amino acid metabolism, muscle function, etc. 3. _____________________ function 4. Brain function

Nerve cell ________________________: iron helps produce myelin sheath Nerve cell ________________: iron helps produce neurotransmitters Regulation of Iron in the body Iron absorption depends on: 1. ________________ (primary factor) Absorption varies, depending on the persons needs _________________ absorption when circulating iron and iron reserves are low. 2. GI function Depends on __________________________

3. ______________________________ of iron in food 2 types of iron found in food: Heme iron: found in the hemoglobin and myoglobin of animal foods Non-heme iron: iron in plants and animal foods that is not part of hemoglobin or myoglobin. Problem Set 10, Q3 Explain the difference between heme and non-heme iron. Which is absorbed better?

Iron Iron absorption is affected by the following dietary factors: Enhance (for non-heme iron): ______________________ Inhibit: _______________________________________bind to non-heme iron ______________________________________compete for absorption Transport and storage: Transporter: _______________________________ Storage form of iron: ________________________

Turnover and losses: Rapid growth and blood expansion (infant young children) ____________________________ (menstruation, feces, sweat) _________________________(ulcer, cancer, parasitic infection) Iron Food sources: Red meat, oyster, legumes, tofu, whole grains Deficiency: ________________________________ Toxicity: Adult doses can cause poisoning in children

Hereditary hemochromatosis a genetic disorder in which ____________________ results in abnormal iron deposits in the liver and other tissues. Zinc Functions 1. Enzymes Helps provide _______________ or ___________ catalytic ability Ex: In the retina, zinc must interact with enzyme that activates vitamin A night vision 2.

3. 4. Gene regulations Helps small proteins to fold so that the proteins can interact with ____________ turns on gene turns on gene _________________________ ________________________________________ Immune system Helps develop and maintain immune system Others:

Taste perception ______________________________________ Regulation of Zinc in the Body Absorption: Similar to ________________ Depends on bodys needs, zinc content of the meal, and presence of competing minerals ______________ and supplemental calcium inhibit absorption Transport, distribution, and excretion:

Zinc circulates in the bloodstream bound to protein, traveling to the liver and tissues. Food sources: Red meats, seafood Zinc Deficiency: Uncommon, but may occur in people with illness that impair absorption ______________ and ____________________________ Toxicity: Usually rare

Can cause copper deficiency: Q: Why is this is beneficial for those with Wilsons disease (genetic disorder that increases copper absorption)? Selenium Functions: Part of _________________ enzyme __________ metabolism: selenium-dependent enzymes __________ the major thyroid hormone. _______________ function Absorption and excretion: Bound to amino acid (MET or CYS) Enhance absorption: ________________ Inhibits absorption: _________________

Selenium Food sources: Organ meats, fish, seafood, meats Deficiency: Increase susceptibility to some infections Keshan disease: enlarged heart disorder in children Worsens _________________ (low thyroid hormones slowing of mental/physical functions) Toxicity: _________________________ Iodine

Function: _____________________production Food sources: __________________, fish, seafood, dairy Deficiency: Goiter: enlarged thyroid gland Low iodine low thyroid hormone produces more ___________________________ thyroid gland grows bigger Cretinism: mental retardation Occurs during pregnancy Can be caused by ________________ deficiency

Toxicity: ____________________ Too much iodine inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis less thyroid hormone thyroid gland grows bigger. Problem Set 10 Question #4: Q: Explain two ways someone can have hypothyroidism. (Hint: which two minerals are involved?) Copper Functions:

_______________________________production Immune function Involved with antioxidant enzyme Works with ceruloplasmin, a copper-dependent enzyme required for ______________________. Absorption and storage: Absorption varies from ___________________ Interferes with absorption: ________________ Copper Deficiency: Causes ___________________ Because copper deficiency reduces production of red and white blood cells

Poor immune function Toxicity: Relatively non-toxic Food sources: Organ meats, shellfish, nuts, legumes Manganese Functions: ________________ production ________________ formation Antioxidant enzyme systems

Food sources: Tea, nuts, cereals Deficiency: Some illness may cause suboptimal Magnesium status: : a progressive disease that destroys myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord __________________________________ Toxicity:

Incidents due to ___________________________ Symptoms: hallucinations, memory/motor coordination. Fluoride Functions: _____________________ structure by promoting deposits of calcium and phosphorous. Fluoride Sources (Problem Set 10 Question# 5): Fluoridated water Fluoride supplements, toothpastes, mouthwash Toxicity:

Excess can cause fluorosis: ______________________ ____________________________________ The fluoridation debate Chromium Functions: __________________ metabolism Enhances insulins ability to move glucose into cells. Food sources: Mushrooms, dark chocolate, nuts, whole grains Deficiency and toxicity: Difficult to determine deficiency

______________ Molybdenum Functions: _______________ cofactor Food sources Peas, beans, organ meats, some breakfast cereals Absorption: Inhibit: ________________ Deficiency/Toxicity: Deficiency: _____________ Toxicity: _______________

Other Trace Minerals and Ultratrace Minerals Ultratrace minerals: Iodine, Fluoride, Manganese, Molybdenum, Selenium (Pages 429-430) Other Trace Minerals: Arsenic, Boron, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium

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