Water and Sanitation Are Human Rights - So What?

Water and Sanitation Are Human Rights - So What?

27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS WATER AND SANITATION ARE HUMAN RIGHTS SO WHAT? Resources Implications and actions needed to put the rights into practice Results from the 27th AGUASAN workshop 20th to 24th June 2011, Gwatt, Switzerland Report, 15.12.2011 27th AGUASAN Workshop Objectives 27th AGUASAN Workshop Methodology Results HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources AGUASAN is an interdisciplinary Swiss Community of Practice (CoP) that since 1984 assembles a wide range of water and sanitation specialists and organizes regularly meetings (4 x/year) and one annual Workshop The 27th AGUASAN workshop in 2011 was dedicated to the

Human Right to Water and Sanitation The workshop objectives were to: Increase the knowledge and sensitivity of the participants regarding the human right to water and sanitation (HRWS) and create a common understanding of the issue Outline a guidance tool (toolkit) for integrating human rights in water and sanitation programme and project interventions Strengthen the participants personal networks and contacts 27th AGUASAN Workshop Objectives Methodology Methodology Results HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Create common understanding via key inputs Anna Russell: History & Implementation Sarah House: Practical Approaches to Inclusion of Marginalized Groups Helgard Muller: From Policy to Practical Implementation at the National Level UN special rapporteur Catarina de Albuquerque (via Skype) Case studies from practical experiences of participants to the need for tools Accountability Nepal/Vietnam, Budget advocacy Nepal, Lebanon, Bolivia, Ukraine

Shaping the toolkit Defining users of the toolkit Developing methodological approaches and structures Defining chapters and topics 27th AGUASAN Workshop Objectives Result: need for a toolkit Methodology Results HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources WASH practitioners think along the logic of the project cycle but often they are not familiar with structure and terminology of human rights discourse; they need practical guidance on how to implement HRWS at the different steps of the project cycle A toolkit is needed that provides tools and good practice examples for HRWS implementation at the different steps of the project cycle, using clear criteria on good practices as guiding principles human rights lens for the WASH project cycle 27th AGUASAN Workshop Objectives Toolkit objectives, methodology

Methodology Results HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Target audience for the toolkit: programme planners and managers of the AGUASAN community and their direct local partners (Civil Society Organisations and ODA organisations) Objectives: Make tools and good practice examples on implementation of the HRWS available to practitioners that are less familiar with the HR law background Scope: Use primarily for internal processes of the AGUASAN community members, but also for influencing other stakeholders processes Methodology: Using the criteria on good practices (cross-cutting criteria) as guiding principles at different stages in the programme/project cycle in order to put the HRWS into practice Presenting tools, case studies and resources in a clear structure linked to the cross-cutting criteria and the project cycle steps 27th AGUASAN Workshop Objectives Toolkit outline

Methodology Results HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources HRWS so what? Introduction on the HRWS framework Implementing the HRWS Resources Questions and actions for implementing HRWS throughout the steps of the project cycle for implementing the HRWS in the different steps of the project cycle Case studies, tools, other resources 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? WASH status and worldwid

e implications HRWS framework,link to M DGs Implementing the HRWS Resources HRWS - so what? Overview on WASH status worldwide and its implication to human health and development Overview on the framework of human rights for water and sanitation and its link to the Millennium Development Goals 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? WASH status and worldwid e implications HRWS framework,link to M DGs Implementing the HRWS Resources WASH status and worldwide implications 2.600.000.000 people have no access to improved sanitation

884.000.000 people have no access to improved sources of drinking-water The MDGs for water supply and especially for sanitation will not be reached in many countries Poor water supply and sanitation is a major cause of the global disease burden (1,8 Million deaths per year result from poor water supply and sanitation, mostly children) Vulnerable and marginalized groups are most concerned from lacking access to water supply and sanitation in most countries Poor water supply and sanitation is one of the most important obstacles to economic development worldwide 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? WASH status and worldwid e implications HRWS framework,link to M DGs Implementing the HRWS Resources HRWS framework The HRWS was explicitly recognized by the UN assembly in 2010 The HRWS is derived from the right to an adequate standard of living (Art. 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and other HR treaties

that are already recognized by most countries) Since 2010, international debate is shifting from is there a right to water and sanitation? to how do we implement this right in practice? 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? WASH status and worldwid e implications HRWS framework,link to M DGs Implementing the HRWS Resources HRWS framework normative criteria (target criteria) For the full realisation of the HRWS, the following normative criteria have to be met: Availability: A sufficient number of sanitation facilities and sufficient water supply is available for each person for personal and domestic uses. Accessibility: Water and sanitation services are accessible for everyone in a household or its vicinity on a continuous basis, without threat to physical security when accessing facilities. Quality/safety: Water is safe for consumption, sanitation facilities are hygienically and technically safe to use, access to water for cleansing and hand washing is assured. Affordability: Costs for access to water and sanitation does not compromise the ability to pay for other essential necessities guaranteed by human rights (food, housing, health care, etc.). Acceptability: Sanitation facilities are culturally acceptable and ensure privacy and dignity (in particular for women).

27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? WASH status and worldwid e implications HRWS framework,link to M DGs Implementing the HRWS Resources HRWS framework cross-cutting criteria (good practice criteria) Good practices from a HR perspective have to meet all of the following cross-cutting criteria (to some degree at least): Non-discrimination: No population groups, in particular vulnerable and marginalized groups (eg. women, children, rural populations, minorities, disabled persons) are discriminated regarding access to water and sanitation. Participation: All concerned individuals and groups have access to information and the opportunity to express demands and concerns and to influence decisions. Accountability: The state and other actors of the WASH sector have accountability mechanisms; communities participate in monitoring and evaluation; the state provides remedies to rights violations. Impact: Practices result in better enjoyment of HR, empowerment of right-holders and accountability of duty-bearers. Sustainability: Achieved impacts are continuous and long-lasting and do not adversely impact the enjoyment of other HR. 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? WASH status and worldwid e implications HRWS framework,link to M

DGs Implementing the HRWS Resources HRWS and MDGs The MDGs and the HR laws have very distinctive histories and only now their linkage is increasingly being discussed MDGs contribute to realize the HRWS Inconsistencies exist between the 2 frameworks; MDG driven strategies may violate HR standards in some cases MDGs aim at 50% reduction of people without coverage; HR aim at universal coverage (progressive realisation in country specific time frames) MDG indicators measure the provision of facilities but not their availability, accessibility, quality, affordability and acceptability MDGs do not differentiate regarding levels of vulnerability of beneficiaries; this leads to efforts targeting the low hanging fruits while neglecting vulnerable and marginalized groups HR standards and criteria can (and should) provide guidance for the revision of MDG targets, indicators and monitoring mechanisms 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation

Resources Implementing the HRWS Programme planners or managers willing to implement the HR dimension in their WASH programme need orientation on How to analyse the situation in the country How to identify the needs for action and corresponding entry points Tools and practical examples for actions throughout the different steps of the programme cycle The following section provides for each project cycle step questions and actions that need to be considered for implementing the HRWS and links to resources 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation Resources Situation analysis Questions on service level

What is the coverage of the population with improved water supply and sanitation facilities? How is the service level in respect to availability, accessibility, quality, affordability and acceptability? What is the situation of the different population groups (e.g. who are the vulnerable and is there discrimination)? Questions on stakeholders Who are the rights holders and duty bearers? What capacities do they have? What understanding of the HRWS have governmental, donor and civil society actors? What are the capacities of governmental institutions and the human resources to develop strategies, define priorities, allocate budgets, implement participation and accountability mechanisms etc. to realise the HRWS? What capacities have the right holders to access information, claim rights and participate in decisions? 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation Resources Situation analysis Actions Improve data basis for assessment of availability, accessibility, quality, affordability and acceptability of WASH access

Use and promote collection of disaggregated data on (vulnerable groups, gender, disabled, etc.) Case studies National Information System for Water and Sanitation (SINAS) Mozambique Tools Identifying existing platforms on WASH and HR Stakeholder mapping Surveys of understanding and perceptions of the population Resources National data from household surveys, census, etc. JMP country files / Blue books 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation Resources Legal framework Questions Which international covenants that recognize HRWS are signed by the country? Are HRWS stipulated in the constitution or in sector strategies? Are policies, norms and standards for WASH provision nondiscriminatory, is participation possible, is accountability

guaranteed, etc.? Actions Advocate for constitutional recognition of the HR Advocate for laws and standards to include provisions supporting HRWS (e.g. for priority allocation in case of scarcity, negotiation mechanisms for water allocation, accountability mechanisms, provisions for non-discrimination in service delivery) Advocate for removing provisions in laws and standards that lead to violation of HRWS 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Situation analysis Legal framework Legal framework Resources List of international standards recognizing the HRWS Strategies Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation Resources Case studies HRWS in Bolivia 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS

Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation Resources Strategic orientation and priority setting Questions Do national and own WASH strategies include the target of universal coverage and support non-discrimination, participation and accountability in WASH provision? Are there effective platforms for coordination of government and donor strategies in place? Actions Adapt internal processes, e.g. by engaging right holders in strategy definition process Align internal processes to national strategies, eg. by setting strategy targets Promote dialogue around integration of HRWS into other stakeholders strategic orientation, e.g. PRSPs or other donor strategies Advocacy, e.g. follow-up on recommendations from international HR bodies such as CESCR 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies

Strategic orientation and priority setting Resources Country PRSPs, National WASH strategies and programmes, donor country strategies and programmes Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation Resources Case studies: GOV-WADE - Governance Project in Municipal Water and Environmental Development, Bosnia and Herzegovina, SDC 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation Resources Budget allocation Questions Do government and donors allocate maximum available resources to the progressive realisation of HRWS? Are the budgeting processes transparent? Does civil society has the possibility to participate in budget

decisions? Actions Advocate for national governments allocating maximum available resources for HR (considering the interrelatedness of HR, principle of non regression, etc.) Donors align with national priorities, balance budgets with HR priorities NGOs assure sufficient budget allocation to needs of most marginalized groups Apply financial mechanisms in programmes supporting inclusion of vulnerable groups, e.g. social tariffs 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation Resources Budget allocation Case studies: Budget advocacy, Nepal Civil society budget monitoring 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Situation analysis

Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation Resources Programme implementation Actions Build capacities of implementers and partners Raise awareness and build capacities of right holders Include accountability mechanisms Include actions specifically targeting vulnerable groups, make sure that the rights of the vulnerable remain in the centre Provide transparent information on programme activities and involve right holders in decision-making on service options, establish meaningful dialogues between stakeholders Case Studies Service cooperative in Ukraine, DESPRO, SDC Accountability, Nepal, Helvetas Accountability, Vietnam, Helvetas 27th AGUASAN Workshop th 27 AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Introduction Implementing the HRWS

Situation Analysis Situation analysis Implementing the HRWS Legal framework Further References Strategies Budget Implementation Monitoring & evaluation Resources Monitoring and evaluation Questions What monitoring systems for WASH and HR do exist? Do WASH indicators allow measuring availability, accessibility, quality, affordability and acceptability? Is the quality of monitoring data sufficient? Are national M&E systems harmonised with international frameworks? Actions Use of indicators for programme monitoring and evaluation that allow measuring availability, accessibility, quality, affordability and acceptability Involve right-holders in programme monitoring and evaluation Ensure capitalisation of experiences and inclusion of lessons learnt in programme planning and implementation Case studies Civil society budget monitoring

27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Case studies, tools, resources The following section describes case study, tools and resources and their links to Good practice criteria they are particularly targeting Different steps of the project cycle they are describing or targeting 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Case studies, tools and other resources Implementing the HRWS Resources Resources for implementing the HRWS Good practice criteria the resource is particularly aiming Step of the project cycle the resource describes or is

targeting Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E Title Author and source Summary Project background Approach used Achievements 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS

Resources Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E Community Service Cooperatives in Ukraine DESPRO project Ukraine, SDC The project aimes at setting up efficient decentralized models of services provision for the population. Community Service Cooperatives were developed as a way to implement the HRWS for Rural Population in Ukraine The Community Service Cooperatives, mobilize community and resources, ensure participatory decision making process, represent interests of community members including vulnerable groups, influence the tariff setting

process, bear responsibility for stable O&M of the water supply system and adequately represent community members interests. 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Budget Advocacy in Nepal Wateraid, Nepal Budget advocacy is a Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E systematic but simple method of demystifying budget process

Tools at national level: Lobby meetings, use of parliament, national media, donor meetings, sector finance analysis Tools at local level: budget analysis, benchmarking, generating credible evidence from grass roots, mass campaigns, public hearings, joint monitoring, citizens action Budget cycle 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework

Strategies Budget Implementation M & E Accountability in Nepal WARM-P, Helvetas, Nepal Within a programme on improving access to water and sanitation through community managed water resources and strengthening capacities of local service providers and organisations, Public Audit Practice (PAP) was implemented. PAP consists of public hearings (initial information), public review (midterm review) and public audit (final evaluation). The main achievements were: empowerment of right holders, provide platform for participation of marginalized people, increase awareness on HRWS, responsibilities and accountability of duty bearer and right holders in the programme are clarified and established, programme performance was increased through better performance. 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice

criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E Accountability in Vietnam Project on Improved Livelihood of Ethnic Minorities and Strengthening Local NGO in Cao Bang, Vietnam, Helvetas Accountability of the programme is enforced using a 5-step approach (Public hearings for (1) planning and (2) project proposal, (3) public review of implementation, (4) public audit and (5) village meetings for organising O+M. The main achievements were the increase of peoples ownership, awareness for duties to contribute local resources & payment of water fees, platforms for participation of marginalized people, increased access to water for marginalized people, awareness of duty bearers of their duties to provide adequate information, to realize

Watsans projects/ activities, simple procedures allowing better accountability towards local people 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E Discrimination of Palestine refugees in Lebanon United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) The case study describes the

example of a state not fulfilling its human rights obligation: discrimination and exclusion of a vulnerable population group Since 60 years: unsolved legal status of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon Lebanese government does not provide water supply and sanitation services to refugee settlements Services are provided by the UN agency instead 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation

M & E HRWS in Bolivia New constitution (2009) includes universal and equitable access to water and sanitation as fundamental human rights Prioritises water use for domestic purpose (HR) Stipulates state ownership of water resources and state responsibility for sustainable WR management Huge challenges remain to make the constitutional guarantee operational 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Website of the UN special rapporteur on HRWS http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/WaterAndSanitation/SRWat er/Pages/SRWaterIndex.aspx The mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the human right Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice

criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E to safe drinking water and sanitation (SRWater) was established by the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The SRWater, Ms. Catarina de Albuquerque, undertakes country missions, collects good practices, and works with development practitioners on the implementation of the rights to water and sanitation. The websites makes available the SRWaters reports to the UN, UN resolutions related to HRWS, International Standards referring to the HRWS. The website will increasingly make available information aimed at the practical implementation of HRWS, such as good practices worldwide 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources

The Rights to Water and Sanitation website www.righttowater.info The rights to water and sanitation website is a joint initiative Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E between WaterAid, Bread for the World, Freshwater Action Network and Rights and Humanity It provides brief information, facts and links to further reading on background of HRWS, ways to influence, progress so far and possible ways to contribute 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources

Website of the UN Water for Life Decade http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/human_right_to_water. shtml The goal of the 'Water for Life' Decade is to promote efforts Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E to fulfill international commitments made on water and water-related issues by 2015. One of 9 focus areas of the decade is the HRWS The website provides condensed information on the HRWS and links to several publications, e.g. a leaflet/poster with eight short facts on the HRWS 27th AGUASAN Workshop

HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) http://www.wssinfo.org The WHO/UNICEF JMP for Water Supply and Sanitation is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring progress towards the MDGs This website is a resource about the status of water supply and sanitation coverage detailed statistics about the use of water and sanitation facilities at different scales (global, regional and country-level).

27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E Manual on the Right to Water and Sanitation COHRE, AAAS, SDC and UNHABITAT Manual on the Right to Water and Sanitation, 2008 (English, French and Spanish) http://www.cohre.org/sites/default/fil es/manual_on_the_right_to_water_ and_sanitation_2008.pdf Comprehensive manual, conceived

as a tool to assist policy makers and practitioners developing strategies for implementing the human right to water and sanitation Contains sections on foundations, framework for implementation and policies for implementation 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E The Human Right to Water and Sanitation Translating Theory into Practice

GTZ, The Human Right to Water and Sanitation - Translating Theory into Practice, 2009 http://www.gtz.de/en/dokumente/gtz 2009-human-right-to-water-and-san itation.pdf The publication gives an introduction on HRWS and discusses ways to translate the right into practice. The case of Kenya is analysed throughout the publication and used to illustrate the translation from theory to practice 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability

Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E Briefing Paper - A Human Rights Based Approach to Water and Sanitation SDC, A Human Rights Based Approach to Water and Sanitation, Briefing Paper, 2008 http://www.sdc.admin.ch/ressourc es/resource_en_170500.pdf The publication looks at practical aspects of the implementation of the human right to water and lessons learned from SDCs experience, as well as at the significance for SDC of the human rights based approach to water management. 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Type

Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E Helvetas, Human Rights Based Approach http://www.helvetas.ch/wEnglish/co mpetencies/documented_experien ces/C_S_Human_Rights_based_a pproach_A4.pdf The brief publication outlines the Human Rights Based Approach and how it is used as basis for development programmes Steps to apply the approach and key questions which need to be answered are listed. 27th AGUASAN Workshop

HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Blue books http://www.sie-isw.org/en/lobbying-to ols/blue-books Blue books are available for Burkina Type Case study Tool Resource Good practice criteria Non-discrimination Participation Accountability Impact Sustainability Project cycle step Situation analysis Legal framework Strategies Budget Implementation M & E Faso, Mail, Niger, Benin and Senegal The Blue Books are developed by all partners of a country and provide an independent assessment of the

achievement of the MDGs. They evaluate policies and strategies and provide a platform for action, in order to ensure equitable and sustainable access to water supply and sanitation for all citizens. 27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Next steps SDC will finance and steer the development of a tool based Resources on the structure proposed by the AGUASAN workshop The objective is a tool for practitioners, complementing the tools directed at governments currently being developed by the Special Rapporteur for HRWS and other actors Planned schedule: From December 2011: Elaborating the tool under the lead of Water Lex (financed by SDC) Febrary 2012: peer review of a draft version with selected Aguasan members March 2012: Presentation of final draft and discussion with a wider range of HRWS stakeholders at the 6th World Water Forum in Marseilles April 2012: Finalization of the tool for field testing 2012 / 2013: Field testing End of 2013: Review of tool and final product

27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Acronyms HRWS: Human Right to Water and Sanitation HR: Human Rights AGUASAN: Swiss community of practice on water supply, sanitation and hygiene in developing countries. MDG: Millennium Development Goals WASH: water supply, sanitation, hygiene ODA: Official Development Assistance PRSP: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper M&E: Monitoring and Evaluation SDC: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SRWater: UN Special Rapporteur on HRWS (C. de Albuquerque) Normative criteria: Criteria defined by the SRWater that have to be met for the full realisation of the HRWS (availability, accessibility, quality, affordability, acceptability) Cross-cutting criteria: Criteria defined by the SRWater that have to be met by good practices for implementing the HRWS

27th AGUASAN Workshop HRWS, so what? Implementing the HRWS Resources Aguasan Workshop Contacts Agns Montangero, [email protected] (steering committee) Anne Russell, [email protected] (resource person) Florian Klingel, [email protected] (rapporteur) Francois Mnger, [email protected] (resource person) Georges Burri, [email protected] (case presenter) Helgard Muller, [email protected] (resource person) Ibrahim Abdallah, [email protected] (case presenter) Manuel Thurnhofer, [email protected] (steering com., resource pers.)

Oksana Garnets, [email protected] (case presenter) Rabin Lal Shresta, [email protected] (case presenter) Ramiro Carpio, [email protected] (case presenter) Rick Johnston, [email protected] (steering committee) Riff Fullan, [email protected] (moderator, steering committee) Rodrigo Cisneros, [email protected] (case presenter) Roger Schmid, [email protected] (steering committee) Sarah House, [email protected] (resource person) Tran Van Tri, [email protected] (case presenter) Ueli Graf, [email protected] (steering committee) Yogesh Pant, [email protected] (case presenter)

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