Water-side Turbulence Enhancement of Ozone Deposition to the ...
NOAA COARE Gas Transfer parameterization: Update Using Wave Parameters C. W. Fairall* NOAA Earth Science Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA Ludovic Bariteau and Jeffrey Hare** CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Detlev Helmig INSTAAR, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Wade McGillis LDEO Concept: Change from windspeed-driven parameterizations to scaling models based on physics of the processes Background On Flux Transfer Velocity Relationships The flux, Fx, of trace gases between the atmosphere and ocean:
Xw=concentration in the water, Xa=concentration in air r subscript reference height/depth zr kx=transfer velocity for X More general form of k includes water-side and air-side transfer processes expressed as RESISTANCES, R Gases reactive in water Chemical enhancement factor
If enhancement is large, transfer velocity usually called deposition velocity Fx w' x' x k x ( X wr / x X ar ) x X ws / X as s subscript at interface k x [ R xw x R xa ] 1 x Fx X ar Vdx X ar Rxa Do You Feel Lucky? k=cu2
Basic Budget Equation For Gas Concentration X In One Fluid [ w' x' Dx X / z ] [ w' x' Dx X / z S x ] X / t U X Qsource z z Source term in flux form S x Qx ( z )dz Near the surface we can use an eddy diffusion representation of turbulent flux w' x' K ( z ) Total Flux=Sum of transport and
reaction/source effects In dynamic equilibrium Fx is independent of z If Sx=0, we can relate the flux to the change in X from the surface, s, to some reference height/depth in the fluid, z=zr z X z F x [ Dx K ( z )] X Sx z Fx X
z K ( z ) Dx dx F X s X r X ( z r ) Fx x Fx Rx Dx K ( z ) V x COARE MODEL HISTORY 1996 Bulk Meteorological fluxes (ku=u*Cd) Update 2003 (8000 eddy covariance obs) Oceanic cool skin module molecular sublayer 2000 CO2 2004 DMS 2006 Ozone Air-Sea transfer coefficients as a function of wind speed: latent heat flux (upper panel) and momentum flux (lower panel). The red line is the COARE algorithm version 3.0; the circles are the average of direct flux measurements from 12 ETL cruises (1990-1999); the dashed line the original NCEP model.
NOAA COARE Gas Transfer Algorithm: COARE Turbulent-Molecular Physics and Woolf Bubble Physics Bubbles enhance transfer on ocean side 1 k x [( Rwx k b ) 1 x Rax ] 1 Atmos Resistance 1/ 2 u*a Rax [ha S ca C d 1 / 2 5 ln(S ca /( 2 ))] Ocean Resistance 1/ 2 u*a Rwx w / a [hw S cw ln( z wr / uw )] A is adjustable constant, phi a
buoyancy function Woolf bubble xfer velocity 13.3 hw A kb Vo 1/ 2 1/ n n W b x 1 [1 (e x S cw ) ] B B is adjustable constant Wb is whitecap fraction Wb 3.8 *10 6 U 3.4 U*a from COARE3.0 bulk flux algorithm: Windspeed or wave-based u* relationships
GASEX-I, GASEX-II, and DMS Field Programs: Difference in CO2 and DMS from Solubility-Bubble Effect THIS IS THE DATA Whitecap - Fetch Effects Energy Of Wave Breaking Wave Model p computed from wave spectral model Energy flux from atmosphere Both u*w and Wb coupled to p 1 P E j U j u i u jU i 2S ij a
a E ( z ) ( P w2 )W ( wu U )U w a a z E w (0) Cwave wave U 0 ( total wave ) p E w Cwave wave p 3.2 a u 3.5 *a Coupled atmosphere-wave model Fan et al. 2007 Whitecap Parameterizations: Wind Speed, Wave parameters, Wave Breaking Whitecap Functions: Hurricane Wave Model Results
1 Monahan 10 Wb 3.8 * 10 6 U 3.4 10*Wp 0 Woolf URI and UM Wave Models Wa 6 *10 U u H Wb 4 *10 7 *a
Wa p / w Mon 10 3. 0 Woolf 0.96 Whitecap Fraction Mellville 7 10*Mellvile -1 10
-2 10 -3 10 -4 10 0 10 1 10 Wind Speed (m/s)
2 10 Spread of Energy at Fixed Wind Speed Present Plans NOAA COARE GAS: CO2, DMS, and Ozone Produce new version for use with wave parameters Tune it to wind-speed version Observations? Ozone cruises, SOLAS, GASEX III
Essay Prompt, p. 1007. Each of the statements on pages 1007-1008 addresses the nature of politics. Select one that interests you, and write an essay defending or challenging its assertion. To support your argument, refer to your knowledge of history,...
Date referral order. was placed. Date referral apt . was scheduled, or if pt self scheduled, the. date referral is last touched. Appointment Date of Referral. Date consult note . received by practice, attached to referral, and marked 'received' Date...
General Findings. We have seen improvements in the GE curriculum, due to assessment, but still have areas that need improvement, such as SQL. We need better communication and focus on the findings and recommendations of GE assessments.
Adam Avakian. Team. What is the challenge? Design a framework of prudential financial supervision in such a way of considering both the actors of the system (financial institutions) and the vulnerabilities that emerge from their connections and interdependence. Uncover the...
Mountain ranges like the Apennines and Alps across southern Europe European Continent Cont. Climate and vegetation. ... Use Cornell Notes or create a Multi-Flow Cause and Effect thinking Map. Rome Falls. Review : Downfall of Rome. What were some causes...
Empowering Writers through the Interactive Notebook. By Jason Galvan & Alma Sanchez. Objectives & CPQ. Objective. ... Sound Effect: What did you hear? Have teachers do this and then color their paragraph with color pencils. F.A.D.D.S./Main Event.
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!