What colours - Pedagogická fakulta MU

What colours - Pedagogická fakulta MU

ELF, aca:Demic writing, and the semanticization of thought r e t Pe d n u Gr m a h ur D y, r e v i Un U , y t si

K g n i d an t s r 6 e 8 . d p n , U a ) c 1 n 1 ra 0 F 2 ( a

r u e g f n o i L lh d a i e s S a h s i l Eng English as a lingua franca is a language of secondary socialization, a means of wider communication to conduct transactions outside ones primary social space and speech community. Even though many Chinese spoke English with ease and fluency, they would not negotiate in it,

believing that it put them at a disadvantage in relation to Europeans. In pidgin they reposed far greater trust, for the grammar was the same as that of Cantonese, while the words were mainly English, Portuguese and Hindustani and such being the case, everyone who spoke the jargon was at an equal disadvantage, which was considered a great benefit to all. ) 1 1 0 (2 h s o 83 h 1 . G p av e, t i k o m A Sm

f o r Rive ELF, aca:Demic writing, and the semanticization of thought r e t Pe d n u Gr m a h ur D y, r e v i Un

U , y t si K Sie sprechen aber sehr gut Deutsch He spoke very good Czech t n o d k n i dr I : h s i l

g oke n E Language use, just like other forms m s or of social behaviour, is interpreted by the actors involved. In the realm of social life in general, more or less coherent patterns of meaning which are felt to be so commonsensical that they are no longer questioned, thus feeding into taken-for-granted interpretations of activities and , e k o m l s o t h o o n lc a

o D i nk : C r S d M not Utterance-type-meaning .. is a level do of systematic pragmatic inference based not on direct computations about speaker-intentions but rather on general expectations about how language is normally used. These expectations give rise to presumptions, default inferences, about both content and force. (Levinson, 2000:22). I n o d r d t o k

in e k o m rs I-inference (Br. Eng.): the speaker doesnt drink alcohol t o n o d , e k o m s t o n Do hol lc o k n

i dr M-inference: (Br. Eng.) the speaker thinks well of them-selves in this regard H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uhhuh uh-huh= C: =oh yes= J: =yes @[email protected] C: H: -think-she-will-goto-her C: ah pragmatics has been something of a poor relation in the literature H: no (.) that's Newton Hall

C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uhhuh uh-huh= C: =oh yes= J: =yes @[email protected] C: H: -think-she-will-goto-her C: ah of context together with the way in which this is signalled metapragma-tically being notable properties of spoken language and despite the fact that its relatively easy to demonstrate that ELF interactions construct contexts that reflect the nature of the intercultural

communication events that constitute them. H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you ; o bad chest (.) uh-huh uhn c i t s huh uh-huh= i u g in t; ? l C: =oh yes= a t a e

h t m al ? y J: =yes @[email protected] t s i ym d n C: to e m H: -think-she-will-goto-her H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uhhuh uh-huh= C: =oh yes= J: =yes @[email protected]

C: H: -think-she-will-goto-her C: ah c i t + s i o u ech taling me h yea H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uhhuh uh-huh= C: =oh yes= J: =yes @[email protected] C: H: -think-she-will-goto-her C: ah

h t i w t a h t l e l a v t i a t s di tras liptic l n e o ; c t c e ff e

H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uhhuh uh-huh= C: =oh yes= J: =yes @[email protected] C: H: -think-she-will-goto-her C: ah o h ec H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-leStreet (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uh-huh uhhuh=

C: =oh yes= J: =yes @[email protected] C: H: -think-she-will-goto-her l a i g nt n e i u h s q i l e b s a a t t ; s e c i

e m re p o t t + b u v an t ) . . e ( l l e r r a e i rk e n t a m vid c i o e t p d o

t e said g d he ink I : r h e t I st i ; g ; u e r r o e yin fi i g d ; l pid ticae mo p nc i

l l ) e re e h n e t f o i e r ce trat n ( h e on s m de H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uhhuh uh-huh= C: =oh yes= J:

=yes @[email protected] C: H: -think-she-will-goto-her C: ah o t e s n o p l s a i e t ?r n e d i v e H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H:

old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uhhuh uh-huh= C: =oh yes= J: =yes @[email protected] C: H: -think-she-will-goto-her C: ah s o t a ( e on s ? n ) i o t @ p a r e s t t

?re ons pria o m r e p d p a n @i H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uhhuh uh-huh= C: =oh yes= n o i t ni tion g J: =yes @[email protected] o

c le e p r s com C: k r a ic m p H: -think-she-will-goto f o to-her C: ah H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uhhuh uh-huh= C: =oh yes= J: =yes

C: H: -think-she-willgo- to-her C: ah t n e m m o c s ' d J e o g t d d he nte us e tat ori s S NN H: no (.) that's Newton Hall C: Newton Hall (.) yeah H: that's Jean Bell

C: Jean H: old lady at Chester-le-Street (..) I think I said to you bad chest (.) uh-huh uhhuh uh-huh= C: =oh yes= J: =yes C: H: -think-she-will-goto-her C: ah n o i t ni g o c e r t s n k e r a

m m om on c leti f o p m co g n i d an t s r d e a , p .7 n U c 1) n 1 a r 0 (2 aF r u e

g f n o i h L l d a Sei sh as li g n E I .. prefer to think of ELF as any use of English among speakers of different first languages for whom English is the communicative medium of choice, and often the only option. Although the metapragmatic and metasequential features of writing resemble those of spoken interaction and, as in talk, function as constraints on interpretation, writing is not

interactive in the way that talk is. g n i d an t s r 2 e 7 . d p n , U a ) c 1 n 1 ra 0 F 2 ( a

r u e g f n o i L lh d a i e s S a h s i l Eng Their (sociolinguists) identification of varieties is also inevitably based to some extent on idealization and the assumption of homogeneity. There are no varieties until linguists circumscribe them as ideal stable entities.. This convenient fiction divides up the language continuum and reifies languages and language varieties as separate entities or bounded units.

lic b u ap s i g n n o i i t t i r a W nt e s e r p e r which is codified and standardized about the effective doing of which there is broad agreement which may be 'corrected' by others when deficient

which involves a process of recursive drafting as writers attempt to satisfy standard ways of conveying the meanings they have in mind g n i d an t s r 6 e 6 . d p n , U a ) c 1 n 1 ra 0 F 2 (

a r u e g f n o i L lh d a i e s S a h s i l Eng But it is not a matter of native speakers generously conceding the right of non-native speakers to use and adapt the language as they think fit. Adaptation naturally happens as a consequence of the very process of appropriation. So English could not actually function as an international language at all if it were simply adopted rather than adapted.

lic b u ap s i g n n o i i t t i r a W nt e s e r p e r which presupposes agreed ways of putting things across a wide community of language users in which it is expected that expert writers will

set out to teach apprentice writers to understand genres, the institutional nature of writing and the power of the discourse community which determines whether a written text has readers g n i d an t 1 s r 1 e 1 . d p n , U a ) c 1 n 1 a r

0 F 2 a r( u e g f n o i h L l d a i Se as h s li g n E We need to be able to refer to a construct that can accommodate the dynamic and fluid character of ELF while also accounting for what its realizations across the globe, despite all their diversity, have in common: the underlying

encoding possibilities that speakers make use of. It is these possibilities that we can (speculatively) call virtual language. g n i d an t 0 s r 2 e 1 . d p n , U a ) c 1 n 1 a r 0 F

2 a r( u e g f n o i h L l d a i Se as h s li g n E ELF users exploit the possibilities of the virtual language to their own ends.. What we see in ELF usage is the exploitation of encoding possibilities to produce linguistic forms that are functionally appropriate and effective.

g n i d an t 6 s r 9 e 1 . d p n , U a ) c 1 n 1 a r 0 F 2 a r( u

e g f n o i h L l d a i Se as h s li g n E The crucial point is that classrooms have to provide opportunities for learners to develop a capability in English that will enable them to make adaptive and actual use of the virtual language. nd a t gh

u o th r m o o f r F g in 6) k 9 n 9 i (1 th n i o Slob age t 76 . u p g , n

a l in g k a spe The expression of experience in linguistic terms constitutes thinking for speaking a special form of thought that is mobilized for communication.. Thinking for speaking involves picking those characteristics of objects and events that (a) fit some conceptualization of the event, and (b) are readily encodable in the language. nd a t gh u o th r m o o f r F

g in 6) k 9 n 9 i (1 th n i o Slob age t 91 . u p g , n a l in g k a spe Distinctions of aspect, definiteness, voice, and the like, are, par excellence, distinctions that can only be learned through language, and have no

other use except to be expressed in language. They are not categories of thought in general, but categories of thinking for speaking. Seidlhofer and Slobin Virtual language Thinking for speaking the underlying encoding possibilities that speakers make use of .. that will enable them to make adaptive and actual use of the virtual language. picking those characteristics of objects and events that (a) fit some conceptualization of the event, and (b) are readily encodable in adaptation is also problematic since varieties of writing represent agreed

and, therefore, reified, and to some degree decontextualized, ways of mediating content that are recognized by discourse communities such as the academy who constitute their expectable readerships. These mediations make use of language specific default affordances that are not only syntactic but also pragmatic and represent thinking for speaking categories (Slobin 1996) rather than the abstract concept of virtual English (Seidlhofer 2011:120) that ELF users appropriate for their own purposes.

Slobin and virtual language Any utterance is a selective schematization of a concept a schematization that is, in some way, dependent on the grammaticalized meanings of the The bare past in Hong Kong English: Last bus had departed This section of the platform had been cordoned off Sorry we were closed Thinking for speaking and thinking for writing If an utterance is a selective schematization of a concept a schematization that is, in some way, dependent on the grammaticalized meanings of

the speakers particular language, is a written text constrained to the extent that some thoughts Selective schematizations in a letter to bank customers English MSC To enable the Bank to implement this initiative, the standard terms and Small PDof the conditions More direct mode of accounts communication you hold with ___ Bank or (positive politeness) its subsidiaries will be (Grundy,accordingly. 1998) changed To go hand in hand with

our Banks implementation Large of PD More indirect mode the above measure, the of communication standard terms and (negative politeness) regulations of the Nominalization different accounts of the respected customer with the ___ Selective schematizations in a letter to academics English MSC As you are aware, two recent disasters in China

the terrifying blast in MSC text encodes larger P Hunan and the directive and smaller D disastrous (Grundy, 1998) earthquake in Yunnan have claimed the lives of hundreds, leaving tens of thousands of victims desperately in need of I think you all know that recently Chinese compatriots in Hunan province and Shaoyang in being more indirectly municipality of Yunnan in being more verbal province have suffered severe casualties as a result of the earthquake and blast accidents respectively.

Selective schematizations in an advertisement for life insurance Cheng and Grundy, 2007 Prediction Institutional writing will encode default assumption s about power / distance differentials Effect MSC texts will exhibit greater encoding of power / distance than E texts Confirmed Data MSC: Perhaps you-polite poss. son daughter still young even

you-polite pl. have just small baby (Perhaps your children are still young, or youve even just had a baby) E: Perhaps your children are still very young or youve just had your first baby Prediction Individualisti c cultures will favour implicature because the hearer is free to interpret the form that serves as input Effect E texts will be positioned nearer the implicature pole: MSC texts nearer the propositional meaning pole

Broadly confirmed Data MSC: but household-thing price continuous up-rise / save money for small child provide book teach knowledge / really burden not light (but the cost of living is continually rising and saving money for the education of your child is certainly not a light burden) E: But with rising costs, saving for that education can also be one of your greatest responsibilities Prediction More hierarchically ordered societies will favour negative politeness Effect Data

MSC texts MSC: if have doubtwill favour question (If you have any negative doubts) politeness; E texts will E: Not sure? favour positive MSC: Manulife happypoliteness willing for you-polite serve (Manulife will be happy to serve you) Broadly confirmed E: We can help Prediction Cultures will show their orientation to ingroup/outgroup distinctions through direct encoding and in the use of person deixis Effect Exclusive deictics will be relatively favoured in MSC texts and inclusive

deictics relatively favoured in E texts Possibly confirmed but unsuitable data Prediction Orderly and hierarchical cultures will favour presupposition since it reflects the extent to which mutually held beliefs are shared Effect Presupposition will be relatively favoured in MSC texts No significant difference between texts Prediction Orderly cultures will favour in-text references to other parts of the text Effect Discourse deixis will be relatively favoured in

MSC texts Not confirmed: if anything, the opposite is the case Prediction Orderly cultures will favour nominal style Effect Nominal style will be relatively favoured in MSC texts; verbal style in English texts Not confirmed: English texts are more nominal Broad results: the deictic (indexical) and inferential affordances of the of the two languages appear to differ the propositional and discourse deictic affordances are not significantly different

But does this demonstrate.. only that different social contexts are encoded in the texts? or that different characteristics of the social event can be more readily encoded in the different pragmatic affordances of the two languages? Academic writing: selective schematizations or adaptation? Cheng and Grundy, 2007 The issue of ownership: Between the poles of Quotation and Plagiarism, we have to bear in mind the question of Voice / Footing: e.g., What are we to say to the teacher who says, I have that many years of teaching experience and I dont need no Two questions that arise in the context of academia is

whether literacyoriented native authored and Chinese authored English parallel texts replicate this finding and whether they also differ in other pragmatic respects. Participants: two native Chinese writers and one native English writer faced with the same academic writing task in English who chose the same two topics, followed broadly similar rhetorical strategies and whose work was graded in the same band. Two questions that arise in the context of academia is whether literacyoriented native authored and Chinese authored English parallel texts replicate this finding and whether they also

differ in other pragmatic respects. The task: Imagine you have been asked to put together a guide for newly qualified teachers. Formulate 4 or 5 methodology statements, such as Language is more learnable than teachable, and provide an explanation for each of them addressed to your apprentice teacher arise in the context of academia is whether literacyoriented native authored and Chinese authored English parallel texts replicate this finding and whether they also differ in other pragmatic respects. The data: the recommendation

sentences in the four selected texts arise in the context of academia is whether literacyoriented native authored and Chinese authored English parallel texts replicate this finding and whether they also differ in other pragmatic respects. The participants rhetorical strategies C1 The existing situation explained general particular/ present developing + exemplification +evaluation The resulting argument Existing solutions

New own recommendation other E t1 C2 E t2

The participants methodology statement headings C1 E t1 C2 Pay more attention to L2 users rather than the native speakers in the process of language teaching Native speaker pronunciation is not a valid aim Teachers shouldnt be limited by unique method, but to overlap dynamic methods and apply proper methods in particular situation in their English teaching classroom E t2 Do not be afraid to experiment with or vary your teaching methods The participants recommendations C1 Heading: Pay more attention to L2 users rather than the native speakers in the process of language teaching Therefore more attention should be paid to L2 users rather than native speakers in the process

of language teaching. It should be noticed that even the native speakers have various accents, why are non-native speakers accents unacceptable? .. Based on these reasons, it can be seen that more dialogues between non-native speakers should be presented in the ELT classroom. The participants recommendations E t1 Heading: Native speaker pronunciation is not a valid aim However, the most important point for teachers is to focus more on fluency when teaching the language to the students, rather than aiming for them to pronounce their words like a native speaker. If the student has a desire to pronounce like a native speaker, then perhaps this is something they can work on in their own time. For the most part, the role of the teacher is to facilitate the students language learning and ensure that they are intelligible, before attempting to make the L2 student sound like an L1 speaker. The participants recommendations C2 Heading: Teachers shouldnt be limited by unique method, but to overlap dynamic methods and apply proper methods in particular situation in their English teaching classroom In conclusion, due to the complexity of the

language teaching classroom and teachers own concept and experience, only one method would fail to deal with every situation, so, teachers should learn to use different methods in different particular teaching context. The participants recommendations E t2 Heading: Do not be afraid to experiment with or vary your teaching methods So exactly what changes can be made to the curriculum and what is to be done? Over 20 years ago David Nunan himself noticed how the search for one right method ought to be discarded and that teachers be supported to Develop, select or adapt tasks which are appropriate in terms of goals, input, activities, roles and settings, and difficulty (1987:2, quoted in Kumaravadivelu, 2002). Alterations to a syllabus or task should be made in the best interests of the student, not the C1 Therefore more attention should be paid to L2 users rather than [the] native speakers in the process of language teaching. It should be noticed that even the native speakers have various accents, why are nonnative speakers accents unacceptable? .. Based on these reasons, it can be seen that more dialogues between non-native speakers should be presented in the ELT classroom. Genitive implicit indexicalit y

more attn explicit should be deference paid to x negative rather politeness than y C1 Therefore more attention should be paid to L2 users rather than [the] native speakers in the process of language teaching. It should be noticed that even the native speakers have various accents, why are nonnative speakers accents unacceptable? .. Based on these reasons, it can be seen that more dialogues between non-native speakers should be presented in the ELT classroom. Pay more attn to x than y invites I-inference Pay attn to x rather than y invites I-inference Pay more attn to x (rather) than (to) y invites M-inference more attn should be paid to x rather than y

E t1 However, the most important point for teachers is to focus more on fluency when teaching the language to the students, rather than aiming for them to pronounce their words like a native speaker. If the student has a desire to pronounce like a native speaker, then perhaps this is something they can work on in their own time. For the most part, the role of the teacher is to facilitate the students language learning and ensure that they are intelligible, before attempting to make the L2 student sound like an L1 speaker. presuppositio n indexicalit focus the role more of y implicit on fluency the teacher rather is Genitive hedge to than (a) and explicit s aiming

(b) for E t1 However, the most important point for teachers is to focus more on fluency when teaching the language to the students, rather than aiming for them to pronounce their words like a native speaker. If the student has a desire to pronounce like a native speaker, then perhaps this is something they can work on in their own time. For the most part, the role of the teacher is to facilitate the students language learning and ensure that they are intelligible, before attempting to make the L2 student sound like an L1 speaker. the role of the teacher is to (a) the role of and (b) the the role/s of the teacher is/are to teacher is (a) and to (b) to (a) and - I-inferences: (a) and (b) are / (b) arent same category concepts E t1 However, the most important point for teachers is to focus more on fluency when teaching the language to the students, rather than aiming for them to pronounce their words like a native speaker. If the student has a desire to pronounce like a native speaker, then perhaps this is something they can work

on in their own time. For the most part, the role of the teacher is to facilitate the students language learning and ensure that they are intelligible, before attempting to make the L2 student sound like an L1 speaker. is to focus (vb) on fluency rather focus more than aim (vb) for on fluency is to focus more on fluency (n) rather than aiming (n) for than - I-inference: there is 1 / are 2 aiming for focus(es) C2 In conclusion, due to the complexity of the language teaching classroom and [ ___ ] teachers own concept and experience, [ ___ ] only one method would fail to deal with every situation, so, teachers should learn to use different methods in different particular teaching context. Genitive indexicalit y negative politeness implicit explicit

E t2 So exactly what changes can be made to the curriculum and what is to be done? Over 20 years ago David Nunan himself noticed how the search for one right method ought to be discarded and that teachers be supported to Develop, select or adapt tasks which are appropriate in terms of goals, input, activities, roles and settings, and difficulty (1987:2, quoted in Kumaravadivelu, 2002). Alterations to a syllabus or task should be made in the best interests of the student, not the teacher. presuppositi on indexicalit noticed y implicit how .. ought to negative be .. and Genitive politeness explicit that be E t2 So exactly what changes can be made to the curriculum and what is to be done? Over 20 years ago David Nunan himself noticed how the search for one right method ought to be discarded and that teachers

be supported to Develop, select or adapt tasks which are appropriate in terms of goals, input, activities, roles and settings, and difficulty (1987:2, quoted in Kumaravadivelu, 2002). Alterations to a syllabus or task should be made in the best interests of the student, not the teacher. Defaults: noticed - Noticed how (subj) ought to be how (subj) (vb) and (vb) ought to - Noticed how (subj) ought to be be and (vb) and that (subj) ought to be that (subj) (vb) be I will .. make some observations about (the teaching of) academic writing in an ELF environment. Teaching the pragmatics of academic writing The literature on the teachability of pragmatics

Constraints on interpretation and indexicality Default inference: I- and M-inferences Explicit encoding and implicit meaning the more explicit I try to be, the more unintended implicatures I will generate (Levinson, 1997:18). Nominal and verbal effects g n i d an t s r 6 e 8 . d p n , U a ) c 1 n 1

ra 0 F 2 ( a r u e g f n o i L lh d a i e s S a h s i l Eng English as a lingua franca is a language of secondary socialization, a means of wider communication to conduct transactions

outside ones primary social space and speech community. g n i d an t s r 2 e 7 . d p n , U a ) c 1 n 1 ra 0 F 2 (

a r u e g f n o i L lh d a i e s S a h s i l Eng Their (sociolinguists) identification of varieties is also inevitably based to some extent on idealization and the assumption of homogeneity. There are no varieties until linguists circumscribe them as ideal stable entities.. This convenient fiction divides up the language continuum and reifies languages and language varieties as separate entities or bounded units.

References Cheng, W. and P. Grundy. (2007). Thinking for writing. In Blitvich, P. G-C., Cruz, M.P., Moron, R.G. and L.F. Amaya (eds) Studies in Intercultural, Cognitive and Social Pragmatics. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2-36. Grundy, P. (1998). Parallel texts and diverging cultures in Hong Kong. In Niemeier, A, Campell, C.P, and R. Dirven (eds) The Cultural Context in Business Communication. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 167-183. Grundy, P. and Y. Jiang (2001) The bare past as an ideological construction in Hong Kong discourse. In Dirven, R., Frank, R. and C. Ilie (eds) Language and Ideology: Vol II Descriptive Cognitive Approaches Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 117-134. Levinson, S.C. (1997). From outer to inner space: Linguistic categories and nonlinguistic thinking. In Pederson, E. and J. Nuyts. (eds) With Language in Mind: The Relationship between Linguistic and Conceptual Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 13-45. Levinson, S.C. (2000). Presumptive Meanings. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Slobin, D.I. (1996). From thought and language to thinking for speaking. In Gumperz, J.J. and S.C. Levinson (eds) Rethinking Linguistic Relativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 70-96. [email protected] e m g ing n i t i n v

e t n i s i l r fo fo r s k s n k a Th than d n a

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • briefly reviews the anatomy, surface anatomy, and sonoanatomy ...

    briefly reviews the anatomy, surface anatomy, and sonoanatomy ...

    * For example, if the needle entered the epidural space at a depth of 5cm, the catheter should be withdrawn so that the 10cm mark is at the skin, thus leaving approximately 5cm of the catheter inside the epidural space,...
  • GASES The Properties of Gases Only 4 quantities

    GASES The Properties of Gases Only 4 quantities

    Exercise 20 Effusion Rates Calculate the ratio of the effusion rates of hydrogen gas (H2) and uranium hexafluoride (UF6), a gas used in the enrichment process to produce fuel for nuclear reactors. Solution 13.2 Exercise A pure sample of methane...
  • Battle of the

    Battle of the

    Battle of the Books 2013/2014 What is Involved? Students will form groups of three Turn in your permission slips as a team. Meet once a week for 7 - 9 weeks Read 4 books a quarter Work with BOB teacher...
  • Boots Group PLC Interim Results 2005/06 27th October

    Boots Group PLC Interim Results 2005/06 27th October

    This includes £151m of accounting profit on the store disposals under our sale and leaseback transaction, and other asset disposals. The tax rate in the first half was 9%. The rate is lower than usual due to the sale and...
  • Chapter 7 Data Modeling Using the EntityRelationship (ER)

    Chapter 7 Data Modeling Using the EntityRelationship (ER)

    Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design. Requirements collection and analysis. Database designers interview prospective database users to understand and document data requirements. Result: data requirements. Functional requirements . ... Model concept first as an attribute.
  • G&T Hub Webinar Planning for A* achievement  a

    G&T Hub Webinar Planning for A* achievement a

    G&T Hub Webinar Planning for A* achievement - a four step strategy. Ian Warwick -----The webinar slides can be downloaded and printed from:
  • Celeste H. Moreno and Curtis N. James - Arizona Space Grant ...

    Celeste H. Moreno and Curtis N. James - Arizona Space Grant ...

    The synoptic weather patterns and thermodynamic properties of each type of event will be analyzed and are presented by superposed epoch analysis (or composites) of NCEP gridded synoptic re-analysis data. ... Journal of Climate: Vol. 19, No 4. American Meteorological...
  • Quality Management Team - Augsburg University

    Quality Management Team - Augsburg University

    Quality Assurance Team Nicolas Lee Mike Turbak Steven Seehusen Ryan Justen Brandon Asplund Fall 2004, University of Minnesota The Toyota Production System Unique production system Allows for continuous quality improvement Rated best vehicle in all categories for quality by JD...