What is Fiction? Fiction is literature that an author imagines or invents. Sometimes the author bases the story on real events. Types of Fiction (Genre) Historical Fiction Mystery Myths/Legends/Fairy Tales Science Fiction Horror
Fantasy Elements of Fiction Terms to use when discussing literature 1. Characters 2. Setting 3. Plot 4. Point of View 5. Theme 6. Conflict CHARACTERS are the people, animals or imaginary creatures that take part in the main action of the story.
Protagonist The main character in a story. The character is involved in the main conflict of the story. Antagonist The force working against the protagonist, usually another character but could be from another kind of conflict (sickness, hurricane, government) Main or Minor? Main Character: the person/animal/creature who the
events of the story/conflict centers on. Minor Character: provides the background of the story, interacts with the main character and helps to move the plot along. Main Character Problem: Needs to rescue Princess Fiona in order to save his Minor Character Donkey helps Shrek solve his problem. Minor Character
Gingerbread Man provides entertainment. Not essential to the plot. Characterization: The way an author develops a character and makes him come alive for the reader. The characters actions or words The characters thoughts The characters appearance The responses of other characters to the character. 1. Characters words and
actions Anyway everything was going fine until Tristans mystery powder started melting. He moved his foil off the plate just as my powder began to melt, too, which is why I moved mine off the plate, and then my hand accidentally bumped his hand for a fraction of a second. Tristan jerked his hand away so fast he dropped his foil on the floor while also knocking everyone elses foil off the heating plate. Tristan didnt even care about the spilled powder on the floor or that he ruined the experiment. What he was most concerned about was getting to the lab sink to was his hands as fast as possible. Thats when I knew for sure that there was this thing about touching me at Beecher Prep. (Wonder 72) What can you infer about Tristans personality based on his actions in this passage? Hey, is this seat taken? I looked up, and a girl I never saw before was standing across from my table with a lunch tray full of food Summer!...Why are you sitting here? Come back to the table.
It was too crowded, Summer answered her. Come sit here. Theres more room Never mind, said the girl, leaving. Summer looked at me, shrugged-smiled, and took another bite of her mac and cheese. (Wonder 51) What can you infer about Summers personality based on her words and actions in this passage? 2. Characters Thoughts Does August see how other people see him, or has he gotten so good at pretending not to see that it doesnt bother him? Or does it bother him? When he looks in the mirror, does he see the Auggie Mom and Dad see, or does he see the Auggie everyone else sees? Or is there another August he sees, someone in his dreams behind the misshapen head and face? I wish I could ask him this stuff. I wish he would tell me how he feels. (Wonder 89)
What can you infer about Vias personality based on her thoughts in this passage? 3. Characters Appearance His eyes are about an inch below where they should be on his face, almost halfway down his cheeks. They slant downward at an extreme angle, almost like diagonal slits that someone cut into his face, and the left one is noticeably lower than the right one. They bulge outward because his eye cavities are too shallow to accommodate them. The top eyelids are always halfway closed, like hes on the verge of sleeping. The lower eyelids sag so much they almost look like a piece of invisible string is pulling them downward: you can see the red part on the inside, like theyre almost inside out. He doesnt have eyebrows or eyelashes. His nose is disproportionately big for his face, and kind of fleshy (Wonder 88) And being at school was awful in the beginning. Every new class I had
was like a new chance for kids to not stare at me. They would sneak peeks at me from behind their notebooks or when they thought I wasnt looking. They would take the longest way around me to avoid bumping into me in any way, like I had some germ they could catch, like my face was contagious. (Wonder 61) Compare the authors physical description of Auggie in these two paragraphs. How are they different? 4. The responses of other characters to the character. Dear Mr. Tushman, I spoke with Amanda and John Will yesterday, and they expressed their regret at Jacks having punched our son, Julian, in the mouth I wonder if Jacks unexpectedly violent behavior might have been a result of too much pressure being placed on his young shoulders? I am speaking specifically of the new child with special needs who
both Jack and Julian were asked to befriend. In retrospect, and having now seen the child in question at various school functions and in class pictures, I think it may have been too much to ask our children to be able to process all that. There are many parentsmyself includedwho question the decision to let this child into our school at all. Best, Melissa Perper Albans How does the reader know how other characters feel about Auggie? Setting Time: 1865, Revolutionary War, today, the future, 3rd period Place: Philadelphia, the desert, a bus, wealthy neighborhood Settings can sometimes have their own personality and
emotions, authors use setting to create mood. Mood: (atmosphere) the feelings created within the reader upon experiencing the text. Freytags Pyramid Plot: the sequence of events in a story. ns ck e lo tt
hi n ti o Ri sin g P Ac Ac tio g
llin Fa n Climax Exposition Inciting Incident Resolution Exposition Characters are introduced Setting is described Mood is set
Setting: (Time) Current During the school year, (Place) Hogwarts School of Witchcraft & Wizardry Mood: Magical, Mysterious, Suspenseful, Fantastical Main Character: Harry Potter Minor Characters: Ron Weasley Hermione Granger Inciting Incident The precise moment when something in the main character's
life changes dramatically, and sets the rest of the story in motion. The event is life-changing, and without the event, the story wouldn't happen. Harry Potter gets the letter from Hogwarts telling him that he is a wizard and he is to come to Hogwarts for the new school year. This changes Harrys life and without this event the story wouldnt happen. Examples of other types of Inciting Incidents Someone dies Something is won or lost Something is important is discovered Rising Action Plot gets more complex
Characters struggle to find solutions to the conflict Suspense builds 2. Harry discovers that the mysterious package from Gringotts is now at Hogwarts. 1. Harry leaves his home on the Hogwarts Express to start his new
life. 3. Harry Potter and friends rush to tell Dumbledore that Hagrid has accidentally given away the secret and the stone is in danger, only to find that Dumbledore himself has been lured awayleaving the stone vulnerable to Snape.
4. Harry Potter and friends come up with their own plan to save the stone and set it into motion. Climax Highest point of action in the story Outcome of the conflict is decided Usually a change in the protagonist will occur Harry Potters confrontation with Professor Quirrell who is being controlled by Lord Voldemort. Falling Action
the part of a story that comes immediately after the climax and before the conclusion. Dumbledore destroys the sorcerers stone. Harry discovers that his mothers love is what protected him from Voldemort. Resolution Loose ends are tied up Story ends
Gryffindor wins the house cup. Harry returns to the Dursleys for the summer. Point of View First Person: the story is told by the protagonist and uses the pronoun I. Excerpt from The Lightning Thief example: Anyway, Nancy Bobofit was throwing wads of sandwich that stuck in his brown curly hair, and she knew I couldnt do anything to her because I was already on probation. The headmaster had threatened me with death by in-school suspension if anything bad, embarrassing, or even mildly entertaining happened on this trip.
Im going to kill her, I mumbled. Point of View Second Person: The author or a character speaks directly to the audience http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QRJ38y4Jn6k http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=52UxIgsC_0g Point of View Third Person: The narrator is not a character in the story. Third person uses the pronouns she, he, it, and they So while first-person narration is- I never sing in the choir on Sundays. Third-person narration is, She never sings in the choir on Sundays. Theme
The theme of a literary work is the message or insight about life or human nature that the writer presents to the reader. It is a message that can apply to all peopleit has universal meaning. Because the theme is not usually stated directly, the reader has to read between the lines. It is always written as a sentence! Example of Theme Topic: Freedom Theme Sentence: People will sacrifice their personal freedom for a greater good. NOT: Dont judge a book by its cover. The sentence should be original.
Symbolism An image/object in a story that is used repeatedly and carries a deeper meaning. Universal Symbols: water = purity black clouds = evil approaching What attributes does Darth Vader have that make him a symbol of evil? What attributes does Luke Skywalker have that make him a
symbol of good? Conflict A struggle or battle between two or more opposing forces. Every story must have a conflict. EXTERNAL CONFLICTS (outside of the character) Character vs. Society Character vs. Nature
Character vs. Internal Conflict Character vs. himself (a character struggles with a problem within himself) http://prezi.com/wfqqdycmbqyl/elements-of-plot
Imagery and Memory. Memory Examples: Dual Code Theory. To recall Y you must first recall X. Windows, doorknob, glasses, other facial features, global-to-local ... (Pylyshyn, 1979). There are even demonstrations that it depends on how the subject interprets the figure...
Cause mechanical injury to cells and tissues Cause cell death Modify cell development Modify cell function Disrupt uptake of water and nutrients Alter photosynthate partitioning Create avenues of ingress Predispose plants to other stresses Signs and symptoms…..
Overview: Collect all financial transactions from members and other sources. Record, keep and maintain an account of all monies received. Report at the regular meeting of the Grand Chapter all monies received from all sources at or between meetings.
OVIDUCT: -union of sperm and egg nuclei (zygote) -> first cell division within 24 hours to form the embryo cell division continues -> formation of the morula at day 4 morula = a mass of tiny, uniformly sized cells with...
Friedrich Nietzsche, 1844-1800 ... and indeed of their crimes; it is not possible to free oneself wholly from this chain. If we condemn these aberrations, and regard ourselves free of them, this does not alter the fact that we originate...
protocol layering, packet switching, routing and data streaming. Integration of heterogeneous systems. IPV4 to IPV6 to address enormous growth in space. Improvements in mobility, security, and QoS. Standards: Ethernet, IEEE 802.11 (WiFi), Bluetooth.
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