What are sub-aerial processes? Use this Power Point to make notes about the different types of weathering & mass movement What are sub-aerial processes? The coast is the narrow zone between the land and the sea.
It is worth remembering that the landscape will be influenced by processes on the land as well as the sea. Sub-aerial processes include weathering and mass movement. These processes operate on the cliff face to weaken it and provide
material for coastal erosion. What is weathering? Biological weathering What has caused the cracks to appear? Chemical weathering How do you think these rocks have become weathered?
Can you explain Colin forgot to chill the wine so he put it in the freezer to quickly make it cold but then forgot it was there! Next time he went to the freezer he found it totally shattered. Explain what has happened.
The water expanded as it froze, creating huge forces. These shattered the glass bottle. What are the different types of weathering? Mechanical weathering
Frost shattering Daily temperatures fluctuate around 0oC Ice occupies 9% more volume Freeze-thaw process widens
joints Mechanical weathering Exfoliation Outer layers of rock warm faster and cool more rapidly Outer layers peel
like an onion (onion skin weathering) Mechanical weathering Pressure release Rocks developed under great pressure. Later exposure releases pressure and exposure to atmosphere.
Cracks develop and sheeting occurs Mechanical weathering Salt crystallisation Slightly saline water enters pore spaces Evaporation leaves salt crystals which exert stresses on the
rock This leads to granular disintegration Biological Weathering Biological weathering Plant / tree roots expand along
joints and bedding planes Blocks of rock become detached Chemical weathering Oxidation Rocks exposed to
oxygen causes rocks to crumble E.g. Iron in a ferrous state is changed by oxygen in to a ferric state. Rocks change colour from a blue grey to a reddish brown
Chemical weathering Hydration Rocks capable of absorbing
water E.g. water added to anhydrite, gypsum results Active following periods of wet and dry weather Also classed as a physiochemical process that is, they swell and exert pressure as well as change
chemical structure Chemical weathering Hydrolysis Hydrogen in water reacts with minerals E.g. Breakdown of feldspar (mineral in igneous rock) to granite Chemical weathering
Carbonation Rainwater contains carbon dioxide, which produces carbonic acid. Dissolves limestone in to solution (calcium bicarbonate (soluble)).
Chemical weathering Solution Minerals which are soluble dissolve, with increasing acidity in the water Chemical weathering
Acid rain Human activity increasing carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide Increases rate of carbonation of limestone What is mass movement? What are the different types of mass movement?
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