WHATS NEW IN THE 2013 APHG COURSE OUTLINE?? BLACKIn Past Course Outlines Highlighted-New to the 2013 Outline Hyperlinked-Connected to tag w/resources I--Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives A. Geography as a field of inquiry B. Major geographical concepts underlying the geographical perspective: location, space, place, scale, pattern, nature and society, regionalization, globalization, and gender issues C. Key geographical skills 1. How to use and think about maps and geospatial data 2. How to understand & interpret the implications of associations among phenomena in places 3. How to recognize and interpret at different scales the relationships among patterns and processes
4. How to define regions and evaluate the regionalization process 5. How to characterize and analyze changing interconnections among places D. Use of geospatial technologies, such as GIS, remote sensing, global positioning systems (GPS), and online maps E. Sources of geographical information and ideas: the field, census data, online data, aerial photography, and satellite imagery F. Identification of major world regions (see maps on the following pages) II. Population and Migration A. Geographical analysis of population 1. Density, distribution, and scale 2. Implications of various densities and distributions 3. Composition: age, sex, income, education, and ethnicity 4. Patterns of fertility, mortality, and health B. Population growth and decline over time and space
1. Historical trends and projections for the future 2. Theories of population growth and decline, including the Demographic Transition Model 3. Regional variations of demographic transition 4. Effects of national population policies: promoting population growth in some countries reducing fertility rates in others 5. Environmental impacts of population change on water use, food supplies, biodiversity, the atmosphere, and climate 6. Population and natural hazards: impacts on policy, economy, and society C. Migration 1. Types of migration: transnational, internal, chain, step, seasonal agriculture (e.g., transhumance), and rural to urban 2. Major historical migrations 3. Push and pull factors, and migration in relation to employment and quality of life 4. Refugees, asylum seekers, and internally displaced persons 5. Consequences of migration: socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, and political; immigration policies; remittances
or III. Cultural Patterns and Processes A. Concepts of culture 1. Culture traits 2. Diffusion patterns 3. Acculturation, assimilation, and multiculturalism 4. Cultural region, vernacular regions, and culture hearths 5. Globalization and the effects of technology on cultures B. Cultural differences and regional patterns 1. Language and communications 2. Religion and sacred space 3. Ethnicity and nationalism 4. Cultural differences in attitudes toward gender 5. Popular and folk culture 6. Cultural conflicts, and law and policy to protect culture
C. Cultural landscapes and cultural identity 1. 2. 3. 4. Symbolic landscapes and sense of place The formation of identity and place making Differences in cultural attitudes and practices toward the environment Indigenous peoples IV-The Political Organization of Space A. Territorial dimensions of politics 1. The concepts of political power and territoriality 2. The nature, meaning, and function of boundaries 3. Influences of boundaries on identity, interaction, and exchange 4. Federal and unitary states, confederations, centralized government, and forms of governance 5. Spatial relationships between political systems and patterns of ethnicity, economy, and gender
6. Political ecology: impacts of law and policy on the environment and environmental justice B. Evolution of the contemporary political pattern 1. The nation-state concept 2. Colonialism and imperialism 3. Democratization 4. Fall of communism and legacy of the Cold War 5. Patterns of local, regional, and metropolitan governance C. Changes and challenges to political-territorial arrangements 1. Changing nature of sovereignty 2. Fragmentation, unification, and cooperation 3. Supranationalism and international alliances 4. Devolution of countries: centripetal and centrifugal forces 5. Electoral geography: redistricting and gerrymandering 6. Armed conflicts, war, and terrorism V. Agriculture, Food Production and Rural Land Use
A. Development and diffusion of agriculture 1. Neolithic Agricultural Revolution 2. Second Agricultural Revolution 3. Green Revolution 4. Large-scale commercial agriculture and agribusiness B. Major agricultural production regions 1. Agricultural systems associated with major bioclimatic zones 2. Variations within major zones and effects of markets 3. Interdependence among regions of food production and consumption C. Rural land use and settlement patterns 1. Models of agricultural land use, including von Thnens model 2. Settlement patterns associated with major agriculture types: subsistence, cash cropping, plantation, mixed farming, monoculture, pastoralism, ranching, forestry, fishing and aquaculture 3. Land use/land cover change: irrigation, desertification, deforestation, wetland destruction, conservation efforts to protect or restore natural land cover, and global impacts 4. Roles of women in agricultural production and farming communities
continued D. Issues in contemporary commercial agriculture 1. Biotechnology, including genetically modified organisms ( GMO) 2. Spatial organization of industrial agriculture, including the transition in land use to large-scale commercial farming and factors affecting the location of processing facilities 3. Environmental issues: soil degradation, overgrazing, river and aquifer depletion, animal wastes, and extensive fertilizer and pesticide use 4. Organic farming, crop rotation, value-added specialty foods, regional appellations, fair trade, and eat-local-food movements
5. Global food distribution, malnutrition, and famine VI. Industrialization and Economic Development A. Growth and diffusion of industrialization 1. The changing roles of energy and technology 2. Industrial Revolution 3. Models of economic development: Rostows Stages of Economic Growth and Wallersteins World Systems Theory 4. Geographic critiques of models of industrial location: bid rent, Webers comparative costs of transportation and industrial location in relation to resources, location of retailing and service industries, and local economic development within competitive global systems of corporations and finance B. Social and economic measures of development 1.Gross domestic product and GDP per capita 2. Human Development Index 3. Gender Inequality Index
4. Income disparity and the Gini coefficient 5. Changes in fertility and mortality 6. Access to health care, education, utilities, and sanitation VI. Industrialization and Economic Development continued C. Contemporary patterns and impacts of industrialization and development 1. Spatial organization of the world economy 2. Variations in levels of development (uneven development) 3. Deindustrialization, economic restructuring, and the rise of service and high technology economies 4. Globalization, manufacturing in newly industrialized countries (NICs), and the international division of labor 5. Natural resource depletion, pollution, and climate change.
6. Sustainable development 7. Government development initiatives: local, regional, and national policies 8. Women in development and gender equity in the workforce VII. Cities and Urban Land Use A. Development and character of cities 1. Origin of cities; site and situation characteristics 2. Forces driving urbanization 3. Borcherts epochs of urban transportation development 4. World cities and megacities 5. Suburbanization processes B. Models of urban hierarchies: reasons for the distribution and size of cities 1. Gravity model 2. Christallers central place theory 3. Rank-size rule
4. Primate cities C. Models of internal city structure and urban development: strengths and limitations of models 1.Burgess concentric zone model 2.Hoyt sector model 3.Harris and Ullman multiple nuclei model 4.Galactic city model 5. Models of cities in Latin America, North Africa and the Middle East, subAfrica, East Asia, and South Asia Saharan VII. Cities and Urban Land Use D. Built environment and social space 1. Types of residential buildings 2. Transportation and utility infrastructure 3. Political organization of urban areas 4. Urban planning and design (e.g., gated communities, New
Urbanism, and smart-growth policies) 5. Census data on urban ethnicity, gender, migration, and socioeconomic status 6. Characteristics and types of edge cities: boomburgs, greenfields, uptowns E. Contemporary urban issues 1. Housing and insurance discrimination, and access to food stores 2. Changing demographic, employment, and social structures 3. Uneven development, zones of abandonment, disamenity, and gentrification 4. Suburban sprawl and urban sustainability problems: land and energy use, cost of expanding public education services, home financing and debt crises 5. Urban environmental issues: transportation, sanitation, air and water quality, remediation of brownfields, and farmland protection
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