Where Are People Distributed in Urban Areas? Models of urban structure Are used to explain where people live in cities Three models, all developed in the city of Chicago Concentric zone model Sector model Multiple nuclei model Four Stages of U.S. Cities In 1967, John Borchert suggested that American cities went through 4 distinct stages.
Stage 1 The sail-wagon period 1790-1830 Stage 2 The iron-horse period 1830-1870 Stage 3 The steel-rail period 1870-1920 Stage 4 The auto-air-amenity period 1920-70 ??Stage 5?? High Technology period 1970- Western U.S. CITIES Los Angeles Urban Sprawl Much more spread out Cities developed around
the automobile - Highways Grid street system North/South & East/West Suburbs are key to any Western US city More people live in the suburbs and commute to the cities for work Eastern U.S. CITIES Built before the automobile Streets tend to be narrow
Dense population Some type of mass transportation Trains, subways, buses Traffic is heaviest during rush Why is it called rush hour when hour(s) everyone stops?
7am9am & 4pm-6pm Commute can often be measured in hours Boston LARGEST US CITIES BY POPULATION 1. New York City 2. Los Angeles 3. Chicago Virginia Beach 41st largest
Approx. 500,000 6. Philadelphia 7. San Antonio 8. San Diego 4. Houston 9. Dallas 5. Phoenix
10. San Jose 11. Detroit 12. Jacksonville 13. San Francisco 14. Indianapolis 15. Columbus Concentric Zone Model Ernest Burgess (1920s);
1) CBD 2) Zone of transition (res. deterioration & light ind.) 3) Blue-collar workers 4) Middle-class 5) Suburban ring
Dynamic: city grows; inner rings affect outer ones Invasion & succession continued expansion of CBD pushes outwards Sector Model
Homer Hoyt (1939); criticized Burgess Model as too simple & inaccurate Zones extend along transportation routes Growth creates a pie-shaped
urban structure Low-rent areas could extend from the CBD to the outer edge (3) The same is true w/ highrent, transportation, and industry Multiple Nuclei Model
Harris & Ullman (1945); neither of two models are accurate CBD was losing its dominant position as the nucleus of the urban area Separate nuclei become
specialized and differentiated, not located in relation to any distance attribute Airports, seaports, universities Where Are People Distributed in Urban Areas? Geographic application of the models Models can be used to show where different social groups live in the cities
Census tracts Social area analysis Criticism of the models Models may be too simple Models may be outdated EUROPEAN CITIES Older cities Rome & Athens 3000 yrs ago & Paris 2000 yrs ago Buildings are preserved not torn down
London Streets are in a dendritic pattern Not in a grid pattern like USA easy to get lost very narrow streets Not designed for cars Wealthy live in the central city Lower class live on the outskirts Lisbon, Portugal Greenbelt
zone of open country w/ some scattered towns Limits urban sprawl and suburbanization (cost of gas can be 3x higher than in US) City size is smaller (population & area) #22 Paris 9 million Not many skyscrapers in
downtown region Skyscrapers are built on the outskirts of the city Elevators lower class on top floor before they were invented Old buildings nicer rooms on the bottom floors Paris, France Results of Wars some buildings
destroyed old & new buildings next to each other Eastern Europe concrete apartment buildings new urban revival (Prague, Berlin) Minsk, Belarus LATIN AMERICAN CITIES
Experiencing the 2nd fastest urban growth rates in the world. Cities are expanding due to the poverty in the countryside City is laid out like the huband-spoke of a bicycle wheel. All roads lead to the CBD Focus of employment, entertainment, and economic
activity Latin American cities are distinctive in that their urban structure includes a spine of a high-income residential area. Many of the elite live in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
gated communities to protect the residents from the crime that is widespread in the rest of the city Squatter settlements are located along the edges of the city. (Favelas/Barriadas) High unemployment Anarchy (no police presence)
Crime-ridden Criminal activity may be the only money making activity Prison may actually be better than slum Sao Paulo, Brazil ASIAN CITIES Many Asian cities are some of the most prosperous cities on Earth. Economic development over the past four decades has been
extraordinary Built on coast for trade purposes, with ports playing an important economic role. Much of their growth is due to trading goods to MDCs USA & Japan. Hong Kong Port zone growth extends outward from port. Specific zones that have been
established for Western companies Usually located near port for easy export Government zone Suburbs
Squatter settlements Market-gardening zone No formalized CBD (massive growth throughout the entire city) ISLAMIC CITIES Islamic cites located in hot, desert regions have twisted streets, because the more twisted the street, the greater the opportunity for shade. Personal privacy valued
Windows generally small Doors & Windows do not face each other on opposite sides of the street Cul-de-sacs are treasured b/c of privacy Walled cities for defense Jerusalem Islamic cities are laid out according to Islamic principles found in the Quran.
MOSQUE the principle mosque is located in the center of the city focal point Primary mosque Jani Space for common gatherings valued Street markets common (Bazaar or Suq) Ghardaia, Algeria
AFRICAN CITIES Lowest percentage of urban population in the world today. Fastest growing urban areas in the world today. High unemployment rates (30+%) Lack of modern transportation systems Unpaved roads Limited highways
Transportation difficult Lagos, Nigeria Strong colonial imprint is still visible Three distinct CBDs Colonial CBD Headquarters of the Govt Architecture resembles colonial power
Traditional CBD Current commercial center MNCs headquarters Market CBD Bazaar buy & sell anything (rugs, vegetables, animals, etc.) Problems Associated with Growth of Urban Areas
Transportation problems Rich/Poor neighborhoods Race Relations Providing essential services (fresh water, sewage, disposal, electricity, schools, clinics) becomes a problem Air, water, and noise pollution increase Urban Sprawl results Rapid Immigration leads to Shantytowns In Developing countries, major cities are more connected to regions outside the country than to regions within the country Why Do Inner Cities Face Distinctive Challenges?
Inner-city physical issues Most significant = deteriorating housing Filtering Redlining Urban renewal Public housing Renovated housing Gentrification Racial Change in Chicago Figure 13-16
Why Do Inner Cities Face Distinctive Challenges? Inner-city social issues The underclass An unending cycle of social and economic issues Homelessness Culture of poverty Why Do Inner Cities Face Distinctive Challenges? Inner-city economic issues
Eroding tax base Cities can either reduce services or raise taxes Impact of the recession Housing market collapse Foreclosures in Baltimore Figure 13-18 Why Do Suburbs Face Distinctive Challenges? Urban expansion
Annexation Defining urban settlements The city Urbanized areas Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) Metropolitan divisions Micropolitan statistical areas Annexation in Chicago Figure 13-19 City, Urbanized Area, and MSA of
St. Louis Figure 13-20 Why Do Suburbs Face Distinctive Challenges? Urban expansion Local government fragmentation Council of government Consolidations of city and county governments Federations Overlapping metropolitan areas
Why Do Suburbs Face Distinctive Challenges? Peripheral model Edge cities Density gradient Cost of suburban sprawl Suburban segregation Residential segregation Suburbanization of businesses Urban Realms Model
James Vance (1964): Urban realms parts of giant conurbations; self-sufficient suburban sectors (focused on their own independent CBD) Edge cities outer realms; third wave:
1) suburbanization after WWII, 2) malling of US (moving marketplace to suburbs in 1960s & 70s), 3) edge cities (moving jobs to suburbs in 1980s & 90s) Edge cities have extensive office & retail space, few residential buildings Urban Realms (& Edge Cities) of Los Angeles
Pasadena, Ontario Density Gradient Figure 13-23 Suburban Stress Figure 13-25
Increased Security along the Afghanistan-Pakistan Border. Attempted Illegal Crossings. Attempted Drug Flow . Improvements In Nuclear Weapons Containment. ACA Report Card Scores. ITDB Incidents. Political Goals. Improving Local Governance Capacity.
katayana he formed the triumvirate in the realm of the hindu law and procedure,along with the narada and brihaspati. he represents the last stage of the legal development.his code was rational and refreshing.
Comparison of currents Conclusion All tested currents passed through soft tissues and reached muscle tissue . For each frequency of "true" IFC, the voltage was higher in the skin outside the electrodes.
"SEIPS 2.0" [Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety] ... Healthcare is shifting away from the paternalistic model (culturally & legally) There are ongoing efforts to support patient engagement, including through electronic tools. Patients and family members already engage in ...
Controls the release of other biogenic amines, acetylcholine, glutamate, GABA, and peptidergic systems. Loss of H3R function causes behavioral state abnormalities, reduced locomotion, metabolic syndrome with hyperphagia, late-onset obesity, increased insulin and leptin levels, and an increased severity of neuroinflammatory...
Comparison of Mainland China and Taiwan Similar pattern, different timing? Comparison Land area Mainland China ≈ U.S. Taiwan < 1/3 Tennessee 267 times bigger population mainland: 1.38 billion Taiwan ≈ Shanghai 59 times bigger Political similarities Chinese Communist Party (CCP)...
Predefined structure to facilitate data input . ... A basic installation manual will be prepared by the WCO. The installation package will be fully automated. ... of precursor chemicals which may be used by terrorist and other criminal organizations to...
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